[32a - 39 lines; 32b - 61 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Mishnah 32a [line 34]:
The words "Shel Shnei Batim" של שני בתים
should be "Shel Shnei Shnei Batim" של שני שני בתים (the Girsa of the Mishnayos)
 Rashi 32b DH Ein ha'Bayis Chalut ד"ה אין הבית חלוט
The words "Makni Lei" מקני ליה
should be "Kani Lei" קני ליה
1)[line 20]בתי בדיםBATEI BADIM- oil presses (the buildings in which oil is made from olives)
2)[line 21]ומגדלותMIGDALOS- (O.F. mestier) large cupboard or closets attached to the ground
3)[line 21]שובכיןSHOVCHIN- dove-cotes
4)[line 21]בורותBOROS- round pits or wells that are dug in the ground; cisterns
5)[line 21]שיחיןSHICHIN- narrow elongated ditches of water
6)[line 22]מערותME'AROS- covered caves of water (usually leading to a spring or water source)
7a)[line 27]חולסיתCHOLSIS- (a) rocky ground (RASHI); (b) ground from which sand for glass-making is taken (ARUCH; TOSFOS DH Cholsis)
b)[line 27]מצולהMETZULAH- (a) and the riverbed (from which gold and silver are panned) (RABEINU CHANANEL to Bava Basra 67a); (b) the pond from which fish are caught (TOSFOS, citing the RASHBAM in Bava Basra 67a. Metzulah can mean either a swamp or river — see Rashi to Bava Metzia 107a DH Ha Lan, or the depths of the sea, where there are no fish — see RASHI to Berachos 9b. In our Gemara, it is referring to the former); (c) a sand-quarry (RASHI here; perhaps Rashi means a mud-quarry, where mud for building was drawn from the bottom of a river)
8)[line 30]"ותורידם בחבל בעד החלון""VA'TORIDEM BA'CHEVEL B'AD HA'CHALON" - "She lowered them by a rope through the window, for her house was built into the city wall, and she lived in the wall" (Yehoshua 2:15) (RACHAV)
When Yehoshua was about to lead the conquest of Eretz Yisrael beginning with the fortified city of Yericho, he sent two spies to scout out the city. They met a woman innkeeper named Rachav who gave them lodgings for the night. When their presence was detected in the city, she hid them, and — after deflecting the government officials who were sent to her house to search for them — she helped them escape: "She lowered them by a rope through the window, for her house was built into the city wall, and she lived in the wall."
9)[line 36]שור איגרSHUR IGER- a wall formed by joined roofs and walls of adjacent houses
10)[line 1]עד גמלאAD GAMLA- (a) all of the walled cities until Gamla — from the southern edge of the Galil region until Gamla in the north, are cities that were walled from the days of Yehoshua (and the laws of Batei Arei Chomah apply to all of them) (RASHI); (b) all of the walled cities in Galil are considered Arei Chomah — even the small ones until the size of Gamla (Gamla has three courtyards, each of which contains two houses, which is the minimum size of a city to be considered a walled city with regard to the laws of Batei Arei Chomah) (RABEINU GERSHOM)
11)[line 16]קדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה ולא קידשה לעתיד לבאKEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHAITAH V'LO KIDSHAH L'ASID LAVO - the first Sanctification brought about sanctity at that time only, and not for the future (after the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash)
(a)The Chachamim refer to three distinct sanctities when they discuss whether or not Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'atah v'Kidshah l'Asid Lavo: the sanctity of the Beis ha'Mikdash; the sanctity of Yerushalayim; and the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael.
(b)The Beis ha'Mikdash had to be sanctified in order for the sacrifices to be offered there. Similarly, Yerushalayim had to be sanctified in order for Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni to be eaten there. Shlomo ha'Melech sanctified the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. According to one opinion, their Kedushah remained even after the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim were destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans. There is a Tana who argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased, and when Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again.
(c)Eretz Yisrael had to be sanctified in order for the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, such as Terumos and Ma'asros, to be practiced. Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael through conquest. According to one opinion, the Kedushah of the land remained even after the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and laid waste to the land. Another Tana (and Rebbi Eliezer — Chagigah 3b) argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz no longer applied. When Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again (see Insights to Megilah 10a, Zevachim 60b, and Temurah 21a).
12)[line 19]"ששים עיר כל חבל ארגב [ממלכת עוג בבשן]. כל אלה ערים בצרת [חומה גבהה דלתים ובריח]""SHISHIM IR KOL CHEVEL ARGOV [MAMLECHES OG BA'BASHAN]. KOL ELEH ARIM BETZUROS [CHOMAH GEVOHAH DELASAYIM U'VERI'ACH.]"- "These included the entire Argov group of sixty cities [that constituted Og's kingdom in the Bashan]. They were all fortified cities [with high walls, gates and bars.]" (Devarim 3:4-5) (See Background to Megilah 10:4.)
13)[line 34]"ויעשו כל הקהל השבים מן השבי סכות וישבו בסכות כי לא עשו מימי ישוע בן נון כן בני ישראל עד היום ההוא ותהי שמחה גדולה מאד.""VA'YA'ASU (BNEI HA'GOLAH) [KOL HA'KAHAL] HA'SHAVIM MIN HA'SHEVI SUKOS ..." - "The entire congregation, those who returned from captivity, made Sukos, and they dwelled in the Sukos, for the Jewish people had not done so from the days of Yeshu'a bin Nun until that day, and there was a very great joy" (Nechemyah 8:17) (OLEI BAVEL AND EZRA'S SUKOS)
(a)The people who had returned to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra and Nechemyah from the seventy-year Babylonian exile underwent a sweeping, heartfelt process of soul-searching and repentance, and they resolved to scrupulously observe all of the laws of the Torah.
(b)On the day after Rosh Hashanah, the leaders of the people gathered together to receive instruction from Ezra, who read to them from the Torah the Mitzvah to dwell in Sukos.
(c)Ezra instructed them to go to the mountains and to collect olive branches, branches of Hadas (a type of myrtle that was not eligible to be used for the Arba'as ha'Minim), date-palm branches, and Hadas branches. The first two items were materials with which to build and cover their Sukos, and the last two refer to Lulavim and Hadasim for the Arba'as ha'Minim. It goes without saying that he also instructed them to bring Esrogim and Aravos.
(d)The people responded enthusiastically, and "the entire congregation, those who returned from captivity, made Sukos, and they dwelled in the Sukos, for the Jewish people had not done so from the days of Yeshu'a bin Nun until that day, and there was a very great joy." This was the first time since the days of Yehoshua bin Nun (who lived almost a thousand years earlier) that they observed the Mitzvah with such dedication. This is why they experienced such tremendous Simchah that year.
14)[line 56]"כל הקהל כאחד ארבע רבוא אלפים ושש מאות (ו)ששים""KOL HA'KAHAL K'ECHAD ARBA RIBO, ALPAYIM SHELOSH ME'OS SHISHIM" - "The entire congregation altogether numbered forty-three thousand, three hundred and sixty." (Ezra 2:64) (THE CONGREGATION THAT RETURNED WITH EZRA)
(a)The number mentioned in the verse includes all those who returned from Bavel with Ezra, including the Kohanim, the Leviyim, and the Nesinim (i.e. the Giv'onim, whom Yehoshua appointed as wood-choppers and water-drawers for the community).
(b)The total comprised all the families listed earlier in the chapter. All of these were from the tribes of Yehudah and Binyamin, who comprised the vast majority of the returnees. In fact, the Seder Olam explains, they numbered 30,000. The remaining 13,000 that made up the total were from other tribes not listed earlier.