[4a - 57 lines; 4b - 53 lines]
1)[line 1]גואלין לעולםGO'ALIN L'OLAM- they can always buy back their land (even within the first two years of the sale, unlike a Yisrael who may only buy back his land after two years have passed - Erchin 29b)
2)[line 12]סלקא דעתך אמינא "ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם"SALKA DAITACH AMINA "V'ACHLU OSAM ASHER KUPAR BAHEM"- That is, you might have thought that since a Kohen is obligated to eat Kodshim, and he does not eat it for pleasure or nourishment as the Yisrael eats his food, the two cannot join to say Birkas ha'Mazon with a Zimun (RABEINU GERSHOM)
3)[line 23]שוקלSHOKEL - there is a Mitzvah to donate a fixed amount of money each year to be used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur and maintain the Beis ha'Mikdash (MITZVAS MACHATZIS HA'SHEKEL / TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH)
4a)[line 28]עומרOMER (MINCHAS HA'OMER)
(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim (Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas Nesachim that is offered with this lamb contained two Esronim of fine flour mixed in three Lugin of olive oil and three Lugin of wine. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash of the five grain species, wheat, barley, oats, rye and spelt (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.
b)[line 28]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b)In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 93:39) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.
c)[line 28]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b)Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high - Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf (see Graphics to Menachos 94b for pictures and discussion of the Lechem ha'Panim).
5)[line 37]לא יהו פחותין מסלעLO YEHU PECHUSIN MI'SELA- they shall not be less than one Sela. Even though a poor person who made a pledge of Erchin must give only according to his means (see below, entry #9), one never gives less than a Sela. (The "Sela" of the Gemara is equal to the "Shekel" of the Torah.)
6)[line 42]איל אשםEIL ASHAM
(a)The Torah requires an Ayil (ram) to be brought as a Korban Asham in four circumstances. Three of them belong to the category known as Asham Vadai and the other one is known as the Asham Taluy. The animal offered is an Ayil that costs at least two Sela'im.
(b)The following are the three cases of Asham Vadai:
1.ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Menachos 95:40).
2.ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).
3.ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah Charufah (e.g. a maidservant who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22; see Background to Kidushin 23:11b)
(c)ASHAM TALUY - If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt (see further details in Background to Chulin 133:49).
7)[line 50]ערך (סתום) [סתם]ERECH (SASUM) [STAM]- an unspecified Erech
8a)[line 18]תפשתה מרובה לא תפשתה; תפשתה מועט תפשתהTAFASTA MERUBAH LO TAFASTA; TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA - if you take hold of the larger amount you will not be able to grasp it, if you take hold of the smaller amount you will be able to grasp it
(a)This principle states that if one rules according to (lit. takes hold of) the larger amount, one will not be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). If one rules according to (lit. takes hold of) the smaller amount one will be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). That is, where a verse is teaching a number, quantity or size but it is unclear what that number, quantity or size is, we assume that it is referring to the smaller one. In our Gemara, the unknown item (the unspecified Erech) may be fifty Shekalim or three Shekalim, which is the smallest Erech. We assume that it is referring to three Shekalim.
(b)The logic behind this principle is that if one is faced with a choice of two amounts and is in doubt which to choose, choosing the smaller amount is always preferable, regardless of which of the two amounts was actually the correct one (because included in the larger amount is the smaller one). On the other hand, if the larger amount is chosen, and the smaller one was the correct one, then an error will be made because the smaller amount does not include the larger one. (RASHI, TOSFOS)
9)[line 20]השג ידHESEG YAD
When a person is too poor to pay the amount of the Erech that he pledged to Hekdesh, he instead pays to Hekdesh the amount that he can afford, as the verse states, "Al Pi Asher Tasig Yad ha'Noder Ya'arichenu ha'Kohen" - "According to what the person who pledged can afford, shall the Kohen designate as the amount that he needs to pay" (Vayikra 27:8).
10)[line 30]והא אפיקתיה!V'HA APIKTEI!- but you have already learned something from it!
11)[line 39]כי שקול הוא, ויבואו כולםKI SHAKUL HU, V'YAVO'U CHULAM- it is equally reasonable to learn either of these laws from the verse, so we assume that the verse means to teach us all of them, rather than just one to the exclusion of the others.
12)[line 42]נידון בכבודוNIDON BI'CHEVODO- if a person made a vow to give to Hekdesh an honorable limb of his body (i.e. a limb without which he cannot live), he has to give Hekdesh his full value.
13a)[line 51]קדשי מזבחKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- with objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices
b)[line 51]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- objects dedicated to the property of the Mikdash (see Background to Me'ilah 12:8)
14)[last line]תפשוט קדושה בכולהTIFSHOT KEDUSHAH B'CHULAH- the Kedushah should spread throughout the entire animal (even though he was Makdish only a portion of it)