Why did Hashem afflict Yisrael through a non-nation?
Da'as Zekenim: This is Midah ke'Neged Midah (because they angered Him with a non-god).
Who is "Heim" referring to?
Seforno: It refers to people in the era of the first Beis-Hamikdash.
What is the meaning of "Lo Eil"?
Rashi and Targum Yonasan: 'They angered Me with their non-gods. 1
Ramban: It refers to deities, which are not genuine, since there is no G-d besides Hashem and no Savior other than Him. 2
Ibn Ezra: It is something without power to save.
Toldos Yitzchak #1: [They aroused My envy through saying] that I am not G-d. Refer to 32:21:6:6.
Toldos Yitzchak #2: I am called Keil, and they reversed the order of the two letters ('Alef' and 'Lamed'), and said "Lo".
What do we learn from "Ki'asuni be'Havleihem"?
Ramban: They angered Me by worshipping demons.
Seforno: This refers to the people of the second Beis-Hamikdash [who angered Hashem with sins other than idolatry. EC].
Ibn Ezra: They angered Me through something that is not true.
Ha'Kesav veha'Kabalah: They tried to anger Me, but failed; I will truly anger them, like a judge who punishes for evil intent, Had they truly angered Me, angering them would be like a commoner taking revenge.
Ha'amek Davar: This was in the days of Malchei Yisrael. They sinned in order to anger Me.
To whom does "Lo Am" refer?
Ramban, Seforno and Targum Yonasan: It refers to Bavel. 3
Who is "Goy Naval" referring to?
Rashi: It is referring to those who deny Hashem. 1
Ramban and Seforno: It is referring to Eisav, a base nation 2 who did not remember the covenant of brothers. (an unworthy kingdom, which does not have neither their own script nor their own language
Ramban: The Torah has now hinted at the two exiles. See also Ba'al ha'Turim.
See Na'ar Yonasan.
Da'as Zekenim and Hadar Zekenim cite Bechor Shor, but give different names for these barbarians.
Panim Yafos: This is Midah k'Neged Midah for "va'Ynabel Tzur Yeshu'aso" (verse 15),
How can we reconcile the Pasuk in Yeshayah, which refers to Bavel as a nation that did not exist with the Gemara in Chagigah 13b, that Hashem caused Bavel to conquer the world before Yisrael, lest people say that Yisrael fell to a lowly nation!