hebrew
1)

What are the implications of the word Lo Sishtachaveh lahem ve'Lo Sa'avdem?

1.

Sanhedrin, 61b: "lahem: - 'Do not bow down to them, but you may bow down to a human-being like yourself'


1

See Torah Temimah, note 29, who explains the difference.

2)

Having said "ve'Lo Sa'avdem", why does the Torah need ro specify "Lo Sishtachaveh lahem"?

1.

Yerushalmi Sanhedrin, 5:9: To teach us that someone who performs a number of different Avodos 1 on behalf of an Avodah Zarah, he is Chayav for each one independently.

2.

Sanhedrin, 60b: "Lo Sa'avdem" refers to worsahipping an Avodah Zarah in the way that it is normally worshipped (such exposing oneself and defacating to Pe'or or throwing a stone at Markulis); 2 "Lo Sishtachaveh lahem" refers to bowing down (prostrating oneself) to an idol, even though it is not the way that that idol is normally worshipped.


1

Pores out wine, bows down, sacrifices incense and Shechts an animal - See Torah Temimmah, note 32.

2

Even though it is not an Avodah that one performs in the Beis Hamikdash.

3)

What are the connotations of "Keil Kana"?

1.

Rashi: It means that, when it comes to Avodah-Zarah, Hashem is zealous - He will punish the sinner, and not pardon him.

2.

Ramban (in Pasuk 3): It is not befitting that Yisrael partners Hashem with any other being 1 - specifically Yisrael, Hashem's treasured nation, whom He singled out from all the other nations. 2

3.

Seforno: Hashem does not want to share His Kavod with others. 3 Consequently, when people confer Hashem's honor upon another, He is zealous for the honor that has ben conferred upon one who is unworthy of it.

4.

Hadar Zekenim (3): Hashem loves you so much that He wants that you will be slaves only to Him, and He is angry at those who serve other gods.


1

Refer to 20:3:2:3.

2

As this is akin to a woman who abandons her husband and goes with another man, or to a servant who adopts another master. It does not therefore apply to other nations, whom Hashem placed under the jurisdiction of the celestial bodies (Ramban).

3

Since there is no one who can in any way compare with Hashem. (Seforno).

4)

Why does Hashem wait so long before punishing the sinners?

1.

Ramban and Seforno: He waits until their measure is full, as the generations go from bad to worse, before destroying them. 1


1

Like Yerav'am ben N'vat, whose children and grandchildren followed in his footsteps (Seforno). The Ramban adds that we never find the term "Kana" in any context other than that of Avodah-Zarah. (Bamidbar 25:11 implies that Hashem was zealous due to Zimri's Zenus, but we can say that it was due to the idolatry (25:2,3).

5)

And to whom does "le'Son'ai" refer?

1.

Rashi, Ramban, Rashbam and Targum Onkelos: It refers to those who go in the evil ways of their fathers. 1

2.

Oznayim la'Torah: It refers to people who sin in order to anger Hashem (where there is otherwise nothing to gain by sinning). 2


1

Refer to 20:5:5:1.

2

"Refer to 20:5:7:2.

6)

What does "Poked Avon Avos al Banim al Shileshim ve'al Ribe'im" mean?

1.

Ramban #1 (citing Ibn Ezra) and Targum Yonasan: It means that Hashem remembers 1 the sins of the fathers up to the fourth generation, waiting for them to do Teshuvah, and if also the fourth does not repent, He wipes them out. 2

2.

Ramban, Seforno 3 and Targum Onkelos: Hashem avenges the sins of the father on to the sons (if they do not do Teshuvah) 4 and destroys them, and on to the grandsons or great-grandsons, 5 in the event that the measure of the previous generations are not full. 6 He does not avenge the fifth generation.

3.

Moshav Zekenim, Hadar Zekenim (3): Normally, Hashem waits until one dies


1

"Pokeid" is like "Zocher", also in Bereishis 21:1 (Ibn Ezra).

2

See Ramban's interpretation of this explanation, and his objection to it.

3

Refer to 20:5:5:1.

4

As in Sh'mos 32:34, and in Yeshayah, 27:1 (Ramban).

5

See, for example, Bereishis, 15:16 (Ramban).

6

Whereas Hashem will never punish the fifth generation for the sins of their great-great-grandfather (Ramban),

7)

How will we reconcile this Pasuk with the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei, 24:16 "u'Vanim Lo Yumsu al Avos"?

1.

B'rachos, 7a: The current Pasuk is speaking where the children follow the path of their fathers, wher'as the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei is speaking where they don't.

8)

If Hashem punishes the third generation of sinners, how can there be a fourth generation?

1.

Seforno: He destroys the third generation if they degenerate further, 1 and the fourth generation, if they continue along their grandfather's path without degenerating further. 2

2.

Refer to 20:5:4:1-3.

3.

(Based on Bechor Shor): The third generation is punished, but it is not killed before bearing children. However, the fourth generation is killed and will not beget a fifth generation.


1

As occurred with the children of King Omri (See Melachim 2, 9:8 & 9 (Seforno).

2

As occurred with the children of Yeihu. See Melachim 2, 10:30 (Seforno).

9)

How will we reconcile this Pasuk with the Pasuk in Yechezkel, 18:4 "ha'Nefesh ha'Chota'as Hi Tamus"?

1.

Makos, 24a: 'Moshe Rabeinu issued a decree, and along came a Navi and annulled it ... '. 1

2.

Oznayim la'Torah #1: It is only a Mumar Lehach'is (an apostate who sins in oder to anger Hashem) whose children are punished for his sins, but not a Mumar le'Te'avon (one who sins with nothing to gain). 2

3.

Oznayim la'Torah #2 (citing Abarbanel): It is only in connection with Avodah Zarah (the current Pasuk) that children are punished for the sins of their fathers; Regarding all other sins (the Pasuk in Yechezkel), it is only the sinner who is punished, not his children.


1

See Torah Temimah, note 36.

2

Oznayim la'Torah. Refer to 20:5:3:2.

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