WASHING THE HANDS ONCE FOR THE WHOLE DAY
There was a certain valley in which water was scarce. R. Avina allowed the residents to wash in the morning, and stipulate that this will suffice for all meals they will eat that day.
Version #1: He would permit this only in pressed circumstances, unlike Rav (who always permits this).
Version #2: He always permits this, like Rav.
OTHER LAWS OF WASHING
(Rav Papa): One may not wash in an irrigation pipe (into which water is poured from the river, and the pipe takes it to the field), since the water does not come to his hands from human impetus (rather, due to gravity);
One may wash (in the pipe) near the place into which water is poured, since the impetus of the water is primarily from the person who poured it.
If there is a hole in the pipe that is Kones Mashkeh (i.e. when the pipe is placed in water, water enters through the hole) one may immerse his hands in the pipe (if some water leaks back into the river), since it is considered connected to the river.
(Rava): A Kli with a hole that is Kones Mashkeh may not be used to wash the hands (it is considered broken).
(Rava): A Kli with less than a Revi'is of water may not be used to wash the hands.
Contradiction: Rava taught that a Kli that cannot hold a Revi'is of water may not be used to wash the hands. This implies that if it holds a Revi'is, it may be used, even if there is not a Revi'is of water in it!
Answer: If one person is washing, there must be a Revi'is of water in it. If two people wash, it suffices that there was initially a Revi'is (when the first person washed).
(Beraisa): From a Revi'is of water, one or two people may wash their hands.
Questions (Rav Sheshes, of Ameimar): Are you particular about the Kli for washing (that it must be complete), that the water has the appearance of water, and about the quantity (a Revi'is)?
Version #1 - Answer (Ameimar): We are concerned for all of these.
Version #2 - Answer (Ameimar): We are concerned for the Kli and the appearance, but not about the quantity;
(Beraisa): From a Revi'is of water, one or two people may wash their hands.
Rejection: This is wrong. Even the Beraisa requires a Revi'is to start with.
R. Yakov of Nahar Pekod and Rav Ashi made Kelim that hold a Revi'is from which people could gauge their Kelim.
(Rava): If one fixed a plug of a barrel (Rashi - gouged it out so it holds a Revi'is; Tosfos - so it can stand on its own), it may be used to wash the hands;
Leather water pouches may be used to wash the hands;
A bag or box, even if it holds a Revi'is, may not be used to wash the hands (for normally they do not contain water).
A SUBSTITUTE FOR WASHING
Question: May one eat with a cloth on his hands, without washing?
Are we concerned lest he come to touch the food?
Answer #1 (Beraisa): R. Tzadok was given (bread) less than k'Beitzah (the volume of an egg) to eat. He took it in a cloth and ate it outside the Sukah. He did not bless afterwards.
Inference: Had it been k'Beitzah, he would have washed!
Rejection: Perhaps, had it been k'Beitzah, he would have eaten it in the Sukah and blessed afterwards, but still he would not have washed!
Answer #2: Shmuel found Rav eating with a cloth.
Shmuel: Is this permitted?
Rav: I washed. I eat with a cloth because I am particular not to touch the food.
R. Zeira found R. Ami and R. Asi eating with cloths.
R. Zeira: Is it possible that two great Chachamim like yourselves erred about the episode with Rav and Shmuel? Rav had washed. He ate with a cloth because he is particular!
R. Zeira did not know Rav Tachlifa's teaching, that one may eat Terumah with a cloth, but not Tahor Chulin. R. Ami and R. Asi were Kohanim (eating Terumah).
ONE WHO FEEDS ANOTHER
Question: If Reuven feeds Shimon, must Shimon wash?
Answer #1: Rav Huna bar Sechorah fed meat (and bread) to Rav Hamnuna. He said 'if you were not such a Tzadik and Chacham, I would not feed you.'
Suggestion: He would trust only someone as zealous as Rav Hamnuna not to touch the food.
Rejection: He would trust only someone as zealous as Rav Hamnuna to wash beforehand.
Answer #2 (Rav): One may not put bread in a waiter's mouth unless he knows that he washed;
A waiter blesses before every cup of wine he receives, but not on every slice of bread.
(R. Yochanan): He blesses before every slice of bread.
(Rav Papa): We can resolve the argument between Rav and R. Yochanan. Rav discusses when an important person is present (the waiter knows that he will get as much bread as he needs). R. Yochanan discusses when no important person is present (he is unsure if he will get more);
(Culmination of answer): Rav's first law (one may put bread in a waiter's mouth only if he knows that he washed) teaches that one being fed must wash!
Rejection: Perhaps only a waiter must wash. Since he is busy serving, he is likely to forget and touch the food.
(Beraisa): One may not give bread to a waiter, whether he (Rashi - the waiter; R. Yerucham - the guest) or host is holding the cup, lest calamity result (he will choke or spill the cup);
One may not put bread in the mouth of a waiter who did not wash.
Question: If Reuven feeds Shimon, must Reuven wash?
Answer #1 (Beraisa - d'Vei Menasheh): A woman may wash one hand (on Yom Kipur) to feed bread to her child;
A case occurred in which Shamai did not want to feed his child with (even) one hand. Chachamim decreed that he must feed him with both hands.
Rejection (Abaye): That case is exceptional. It is dangerous to feed a child without washing because of Shivta (a damaging spirit).
Answer #2: Shmuel's Rebbi hit him because Shmuel had (without washing) fed his Rebbi's son.
Shmuel's father: Why didn't you wash?
Shmuel: If he is eating, why should I wash?!
Shmuel's father: Your Rebbi erred about the law, and hit you for no reason.
The law is, the one eating must wash, but the one feeding him need not wash.
SEPARATION BETWEEN MEAT AND MILK
(Mishnah): A man may wrap meat and cheese in the same cloth, as long as they do not touch each other.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, two lodgers may eat at the same table, one meat and the other cheese, and we are not concerned.
(Gemara) Question: Even if they touched, both are cold. What is the concern?
Answer (Abaye): Granted, one need not peel off the areas of contact, but they must be rinsed!
(Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Two lodgers may eat at the same table...
(R. Chanan bar Ami): This is only if they do not know each other. If they know each other, it is forbidden.
Support (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): If a man from the north and a man from the south lodged at the same inn, they may eat at the same table, one eating his cheese, the other eating his meat;
Version #1 (Rashi): We are concerned only if the two foods are in one Tefisah (wrapped together).
Objection: They may never be eaten this way (even not at the same table)!
Correction: Rather, we are concerned only if they are like one Tefisah (without any separation).
Version #2 (Tosfos): We are concerned only if the food is in one Tefisah (joint ownership).
Objection: If they know each other we are concerned, even if each owns his own food!
Correction: Rather, we are concerned when it is like one Tefisah (they know each other).
Question (Rav Yemar bar Salmiya): If each of two brothers does not allow the other to take his food, what is the law?
Answer (Abaye): (Baisus was a baker. he had a mold to design dough without delay.) People should not say 'Baisus' molds are permitted (to bake Matzah), but no one else's (lest he tarry, and it will become Chametz.' Likewise, we should not distinguish among brothers. In every case, they are forbidden.)
Objection: We are not concerned for this elsewhere!
(R. Asi): If one has only one cloak, he may launder it during Chol ha'Mo'ed.