YISRAEL AND EDOM
Question: "He became an officer to the angel and prevailed. He cried and begged to him" - who was over whom?
Answer: "You have become an officer with (over) angels" - Yakov became the officer.
Question: "He cried and begged to him" - who cried to whom?
Answer: "(The angel) said 'send me'" - the angel cried to Yakov.
(Rabah): "You have become an officer with angels and men" - the angel hinted to Yakov that two leaders will descend from him, the Reish Golah in Bavel, and the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael.
This was a hint of exile.
THE MEANING OF THE WINE STEWARD'S DREAM
(R. Chiya bar Aba): "There were three shoots on the vine (in the dream)" - these represent three wealthy influential Yisraelim in every generation;
One or two are in Eretz Yisrael, and the others are in Bavel.
(Rava): The shoots represent three angels appointed over the Nochrim who advocate for Yisrael in every generation.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): "Vine" represents this world. "Three shoots" are Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov. "It was like budding, its blossoms arose" refer to the Matriarchs. "Its clusters ripened with grapes" are the Shevatim.
R. Yehoshua: Hash-m does not show (in a dream) what has already happened, rather what will happen!
Rather, "vine" represents Torah. "Three shoots" are Moshe, Aharon, and Miryam. "It was like budding, its blossoms arose" is the Sanhedrin. "Its clusters ripened with grapes" are Tzadikim in every generation.
R. Gamliel: It is better to explain like R. Elazar ha'Modai, for then everything is in one place;
Elazar ha'Modai says, "vine" is Yerushalayim. "Three shoots" are the Mikdash, king, and Kohen Gadol. "It was like budding; its blossoms arose" are young Kohanim. "Its clusters ripened with grapes" are the Nesachim (wine offerings).
R. Yehoshua ben Levi explains all of them to allude to Matanos to Yisrael from Hash-m;
"Vine" is Torah. "Three shoots" are the well, the cloud and the manna. "It was like budding... " are Bikurim. "Its clusters... " are Nesachim.
(R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): "Vine" is Yisrael. "Three shoots" are the three festivals. "It was like budding" - the time has come for Yisrael to be fruitful and multiply. "Its blossoms arose" - the time came for Yisrael to be redeemed. "Its clusters... " - the time came for Mitzrayim to drink the poisonous cup.
(Rava): 'Cup' is mentioned three times in the dream. These refer to three calamities that will strike Mitzrayim - in the days of Moshe, in the days of Paro-Neko, and what it will suffer with all Nochrim in the future.
(Reish Lakish): Yisrael is compared to a vine;
The branches are working men. The clusters are Chachamim. The leaves are ignoramuses. The small branches are empty people (who lack Torah and Mitzvos).
(Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): The cluster must pray for the leaves. Without the leaves, there would not be clusters.
(R. Yochanan): "Va'Ekreha Li b'Chamishah Asar Kasef" - 'va'Ekreha' means, I acquired.
'Chamishah Asar' refers to the 15th of Nisan, on which Yisrael were redeemed from Mitzrayim. 'Kesef' refers to Tzadikim;
"Chomer Se'orim (30 Sa'im of barley) v'Lesech (15 Sa'im of) Se'orim" refer to the 45 Tzadikim on whom the world stands.
Question: Are there 30 in Bavel and 15 in Eretz Yisrael, or vice-versa?
Answer: "Va'Ekchah Sheloshim ha'Kesef va'Ashlich Oso Beis Hash-m" - the 30 are in Eretz Yisrael.
(Rav Yehudah): "If it is good in your eyes, give my wages (return my Tzadikim). If not, my wages will be taken, Sheloshim Kesef" are 30 righteous Nochrim on whom the rest of the world stands.
(Ula): These are the 30 Mitzvos that the Nochrim accepted on themselves. They keep only three. (Maharav Ransborg gives references discussing the 30 Mitzvos):
They do not write Kesuvos for homosexual couples, they do not sell human flesh in the market, and they honor the Torah.
WHICH GIDIM ARE FORBIDDEN
(Mishnah): The Gidim of birds are permitted (because birds have no Kaf, i.e. an end to the thigh bone).
Question: They have a Kaf!
Correction: Rather, their Kaf is not round.
Questions (R. Yirmeyah): If a bird has a round Kaf, what is the law? If an animal's Kaf is not round, what is the law?
Does it depend on each particular case, or on the species in general?
These questions are unresolved.
CHELEV OF THE GID
(Mishnah): The Gid of a fetus is forbidden.
(Shmuel): All agree that its Chelev is permitted.
Question: To which Chelev does Shmuel refer?
It cannot be of the fetus. Tana'im argue about this!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): The Gid of a fetus is forbidden;
R. Yehudah permits it.
(R. Elazar): They argue about a live, fully developed fetus. The opinions of R. Meir and R. Yehudah correspond to their opinions about a Ben Peku'ah. (R. Meir requires it itself to be slaughtered. It is like an independent animal; R. Yehudah says, it is permitted with its mother's Shechitah.)
Answer: He refers to Chelev of the Gid.
Question: They argue about this!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): One must dig out the Gid ha'Nasheh and also remove its fats;
R. Yehudah says, it suffices to skim off the fat on top.
Answer: Shmuel meant that they agree that mid'Oraisa it is permitted. R. Meir forbids it mid'Rabanan.
(Beraisa): The fat of the Gid is permitted. Yisrael are stringent not to eat it.
Suggestion: Perhaps the Beraisa is R. Yehudah, but R. Meir forbids mid'Oraisa!
Rejection (Beraisa): One must dig out all branches of the Gid ha'Nasheh. Its fat is permitted.
This Beraisa is like R. Meir, who requires digging it out, and it permits the fat!
(R. Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marsa): The Torah forbids only the small branches of the Gid (they are soft, but the essence of the Gid is like a bone.)
(Ula): Even though the Gid has no taste, like wood, one who eats it is liable.
(Abaye): Presumably, Ula is correct, for Rav Asi taught that strands of Chelev are forbidden, but one is not Chayav Kares for eating them;
This is because the Torah forbids Chelev, and not strings;
Similarly, the Torah forbids the Gid, and not the branches!
STRANDS OF CHELEV
(Rav Asi): Strands of Chelev are forbidden, but one is not Chayav Kares for eating them;
Strands of Chelev in the kidney are forbidden, but one is not Chayav Kares for eating them;
Rebbi and R. Chiya argue about whether Chelev in the groove in the kidney is forbidden.
Rabah and R. Yochanan would dig out all of it. Rav Asi would remove only what covers the kidney.