EATING THE DISPUTED CHELEV
(Rav Nachman): In Eretz Yisrael, they eat (one of these Chalavim). We (in Bavel) may not rely on it to seal?!
Version #1: Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael and Bavel agree that Chelev of the Keshes (bow, i.e. on the outside of the Kevah, which is bow-shaped) is forbidden. They argue about eating Chelev of the string (inside of the bow. This is Bar Chimtza. All agree that it seals.)
Version #2: Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael and Bavel agree that the Chelev of the string is permitted. They argue about the Chelev of the bow. (Rashi - according to this, all Chelev on the Kevah seals. This is unlike Rav Nachman (g); Tosfos - it is like Rav Nachman, but we must say that his teaching (j:1) was not said in astonishment, rather simply. In Eretz Yisrael, they eat (Chelev of the bow, this is Bar Chimtza. In Bavel, we do not eat it.) We may not even rely on it to seal.)
(Rav Avya): A small amount of Chelev over the string (Version #1; Version #2 - over the bow) must be removed (because Chelev of the Kevah, which all agree is forbidden, is over it). The rest is permitted.
Rav Avya: I saw R. Ami remove a little and eat the remainder.
R. Chanina (to his attendant): Remove a little, and give the remainder to me to eat.
He saw that his attendant was hesitant. He said 'you are from Bavel. You must remove all of it.'
HOLES IN THE INNARDS
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): If the innards were punctured and fluid covers them, it is Kosher.
Question: What fluid is this?
Answer (Rav Kahana): It is a thick fluid that clings to the innards from the inside.
Version #1 (R. Zeira, citing R. Aba): The Halachah is like R. Shimon ben Gamliel regarding fluid of the innards, and like R. Shimon regarding Avelus (mourning).
Version #2: R. Aba, son of R. Chiya bar Aba, received these two rulings from R. Zeira.
(Mishnah): If one was away when his relative died, if he was within one day's journey, and returned within the first three days of Avelus, he counts the (seven and 30) days of Avelus like the mourners here;
If he comes after three days, or came from more than one day's journey, he counts the days of Avelus from when he heard of the death;
R. Shimon says, if he was less than a day away, even if he arrives on the seventh day, he counts like the mourners here.
A Talmid heard the above rulings, and yearned to go to Eretz Yisrael to hear them himself from the source.
(The Talmid citing R. Aba, the son of R. Chiya bar Aba): The Halachah is not like R. Shimon ben Gamliel. There is dispute regarding Aveilus:
Rav Chisda and R. Yochanan say that the Halachah follows R. Shimon. Rav Nachman says that the Halachah does not follow him.
The Halachah is not like R. Shimon ben Gamliel. The Halachah follows R. Shimon;
(Shmuel): In Aveilus, the Halachah always follows the lenient opinion.
(Rav Simi bar Chiya): If we are unsure whether a puncture in the innards came before or after Shechitah, we may puncture other innards. If the wound resembles the fresh wound, the animal is Kosher.
A case came in front of Rava. The fresh wound was unlike the Safek wound. His son Rav Mesharshiya pressed the freshly punctured innards. Then, they resembled the Safek case.
Rava: How did you think to do that?
Rav Mesharshiya: The innards were pressed (in the place of the Safek wound) before you saw them.
(R. Yochanan and R. Elazar): We may compare a puncture in the lungs (to a fresh puncture).
(Rava): We may compare punctures on the same side, but not if they are on opposite sides (right and left) of the lungs.
The Halachah is, we may compare even on opposite sides, but not from a small chamber to a large chamber (Rashi; Tosfos - not from a large animal to a small animal).
(Abaye and Rava): We may compare punctures in the Kaneh.
(Rav Papa): This is only within the same Chulyah (ring; Rashi - three rings), but not to a different Chulyah.
The Halachah is, we may compare one Chulyah to another, or one Bar Chulyah (the flesh that covers and connects the rings) to another, but not a Chulyah to a Bar Chulyah or vice-versa.
(Ze'iri): If the end of the large intestine was punctured, it is Kosher, because the legs seal it.
Question: How much must be cut to make it Tereifah?
Answer (R. Ilai): If the majority is cut where it clings to the legs, it is Tereifah;
Where it does not cling, a puncture of any size is Tereifah.
Rabanan told this to Rava in Rav Nachman's name.
Rava: That is wrong! Rav Nachman said that where it clings, even if it is entirely removed, it is Kosher, as long as there remains enough (for a person) to hold.
Question: What is considered enough to hold?
Answer (Abaye): Room for four fingers (Rashi - one finger) suffices (even) for an ox. (Shulchan Aruch - a smaller animal needs proportionally less.)
TEREIFOS IN THE KERES
(Mishnah): If the inner Keres (first stomach) was punctured (it is Tereifah).
Opinion #1 (Rav Yehudah and R. Yehoshua ben Levi): The inner Keres is the caecum (blind gut).
Opinion #2 (R. Yishmael): It is the stomach.
Opinion #3 (Rav Asi): It is a thin place in the Keres, I do not know where.
Objection (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): This does not help us at all!
Answer (Rav Acha bar Rav Ava): He refers to below where the Keres narrows.
Opinion #4 (R. Yakov bar Nachmani): It is the part of the Keres not covered by 'wool'.
Opinion #5 (R. Avina): It is the last Tefach on the Veshet before the Keres.
Opinion #6 (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): It is the entire Keres;
The outer Keres is the skin covering most of the Keres.
Opinion #7 (Rabah bar Rav Huna): It is the Mafra'ata.
Question: What is the Mafra'ata?
Answer (Rav Avya): It is where a butcher is Por'e'a (opens) the animal to remove the innards (i.e. the part facing the ground).
Butchers in Nehardai conducted like Rabah bar Rav Huna and Rav Asi.
Question (Rav Ashi): Are they not concerned for the other opinions?
Answer (Ameimar): All are included in Rabah bar Rav Huna's opinion.
Question (Rav Ashi): Rav Asi's opinion is unclear!
Answer (Ameimar): Rav Acha bar Ava clarified it.
Question (Rav Ashi): The opinions of R. Avina and Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael are not included in Rabah bar Rav Huna's opinion!
Answer: Indeed, they are not. (The butchers are not concerned for those opinions.)
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): (The majority is for a small ox.) For a large one (if a Tefach tears, it is Tereifah).
(R. Binyamin bar Yefet): He does not refer to the largest and smallest oxen found;
Rather, if a Tefach is torn and this is not the majority of the Keres, this is large, and it is Tereifah;
If the majority is torn and it is less than a Tefach, this is small, and it is Tereifah.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: The Chidush is when the majority is just less than a Tefach (Rashi; Tosfos - when the Keres is more than a Tefach). One might have thought that a full Tefach is required. R. Yehudah teaches that this is not so).
(Geneiva): A (round) hole the size of a Sela (a coin) makes it a Tereifah. If it were stretched out, it would be a Tefach. (Tosfos - a one-Tefach string goes around the perimeter, i.e. the diameter of the hole is about a third of a Tefach. Rashi says that if one pulls on both sides, he can stretch them a Tefach apart. I.e. the circumference of the hole is two Tefachim, so the diameter is about two thirds of a Tefach. To reolve this with the coming Gemara, he must explain that dates used to be much bigger than they are nowadays. - PF)
(R. Chiya bar Aba citing Geneiva): Up to a Sela is Kosher. More than this is Tereifah.
Question: How can we gauge if it is more than a Sela?
Answer: If three (average) date pits with some fruit attached can be squeezed through, or if three clean date pits fit through easily, it is more than a Sela.