SHECHITAH OF CHULIN
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah is like R. Akiva;
(Beraisa - R. Akiva): "When you will be far from (the Mikdash) and you will slaughter your cattle and flock" comes to forbid an animal killed through Nechirah (tearing (Rashi; Rashba - cutting) the Simanim lengthwise).
In the Midbar, Nechirah was permitted. When Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael, it was forbidden.
One might have thought that in exile, it is permitted again. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so. We must always slaughter.
Question: What do R. Akiva and R. Yishmael argue about?
Answer: R. Akiva holds that Basar Ta'avah was never forbidden. R. Yishmael holds that Nechirah was never permitted.
Question: According to R. Yishmael we understand "could enough flock and cattle be slaughtered for them?";
However, according to R. Akiva, why does it say "slaughtered"? It should say 'Yinacher'!
Answer: Since Nechirah was permitted, it was like Shechitah.
Question: According to R. Yishmael we understand the following Mishnah;
(Mishnah): If an animal became a Neveilah during the Shechitah, or if one did Nechirah or uprooted the Simanim, he is exempt from covering the blood.
However, according to R. Akiva, why is he exempt? (Nechirah was considered Shechitah, just we may not eat it today!)
Answer: Once it became forbidden, it is no longer considered Shechitah.
Question: According to R. Akiva, who says that Shechitah was never forbidden, we understand "like you (now) eat deer and wild goat, so (in Eretz Yisrael) you will eat (Korbanos that became blemished)."
However, according to R. Yishmael, deer and wild goat (cannot be Korbanos. They) were forbidden also in the Midbar!
Answer: The Torah forbade only Behemos (cattle and flock), which could be brought for Korbanos. Wild animals (Chayos) were permitted.
Question (R. Yirmeyah): (According to R. Akiva), if Yisrael brought limbs (of animals killed through Nechirah) into Eretz Yisrael, were they permitted?
Question: About when does he ask?
Suggestion: He asks about during the seven years of conquest.
Rejection: Even Tamei animals were permitted, and all the more so meat of Nechirah!
(R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): "Houses full of all good" teaches that even pork was permitted.
Answer #1: He asks about after the seven years.
Answer #2: He asks about during the seven years. The Torah permitted only the spoils of the Kanani'im, but not forbidden things of Yisraelim.
This question is unresolved.
Objection (Rava): We explained the first two statements of the Mishnah, 'all slaughter. We always slaughter.' How do we explain the third, 'with all we slaughter'?
Suggestion: It includes a rock, glass or reed.
Rejection: It should resemble the first two clauses. If the first two discuss Shochtim (who or what is used to) slaughter(s), also the third should! If they discuss Nischatim (what is slaughtered), also the third should! (Above, we established the first two clauses to discuss Nischatim.)
Answer (Rava): Rather, 'all slaughter' (was taught in the first Mishnah (2a) and also in the Mishnah (15b)). One of these includes a Kusi, and the other includes a Yisrael Mumar;
'We always slaughter', i.e. at night or by day, on the roof or at the head of a ship;
'With all we slaughter', even with a rock, glass or reed.
(Mishnah): Except for a reaping scythe or saw.
Shmuel's father repeatedly sent blemished knives to Eretz Yisrael, and asked which disqualify Shechitah. They responded 'the Mishnah says that a saw (or a knife with a similar nick) disqualifies Shechitah.'
(Beraisa): A knife with many nicks is like a saw. If it has only one nick, if it is Ogeres, it is invalid. If it is Mesuchseches, it is valid.
Question: What are Ogeres and Mesuchseches?
Answer (R. Elazar): Ogeres is a nick with catches (places for the Siman, i.e. Kaneh or Veshet, to get caught) on both sides. Mesuchseches has a catch on only one side.
Question: Presumably, Ogeres is invalid because the first catch tears the flesh, and the second tears the Siman;
Even Mesuchseches should be invalid. The pressure of the knife tears the flesh, and the catch tears the Siman!
Answer: The nick is at the end of the knife.
Objection: Still, when he is Molich (slides the knife away from himself while cutting), this tears the flesh. When he is Mevi (returns the knife), this tears the Siman!
Answer: He was only Molich. He was not Mevi.
(Rava): There are three laws of knives. If it has an Ogeres nick, he may not slaughter with it. If he did, the Shechitah is invalid;
If it has a Mesuchseches nick, he may not slaughter with it. If he did, the Shechitah is valid;
If the blade goes up and down (but there are no nicks), l'Chatchilah, he may slaughter with it.
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Nechemyah, to Rav Ashi): You said that Rava said that a Mesuchseches disqualifies the Shechitah. Here, he is Machshir!
Answer (Rav Ashi): If he was only Molich, the Shechitah is Kosher. If he also was Mevi, it is invalid.
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Avya): If the knife is like the beard of an ear of grain (not smooth, but without nicks), what is the law?
Answer (Rav Ashi): I would gladly eat from the meat.
CHECK ING THE KNIFE
(Rav Chisda): "You will slaughter with this" teaches that a Shechitah knife must be checked.
Question: Why must we learn from a verse? A nick in the knife disqualifies the Shechitah. Surely we must check the knife!
Answer: The verse teaches that a Chacham must check the knife.
Question: R. Yochanan taught that the enactment that the Chacham checks the knife was made only to honor the Chacham!
Answer: Rav Chisda gives an Asmachta for a Rabbinic law.
In Eretz Yisrael they check the knife in the sun (alternatively - they look at its shadow). In Nehardai, they move it through water (a nick would cause ripples). Rav Sheshes checks it with the tip of his tongue. Rav Acha bar Yakov checks it with a hair;
(Chachamim of Sura): Since the knife cuts flesh, it must be checked with flesh (the finger or tongue).
(Rav Papa): The knife must be checked with the finger and fingernail, and on three sides (the surface of the blade and the sides of the blade).
Ravina: I heard you (Rav Ashi) quote Rava to say that the knife must be checked with the finger and fingernail, and on three sides.
Version #1 - Rav Ashi: I said that it must be checked with the finger and fingernail. I did not say it must be checked on three sides.
Version #2 - Rav Ashi: I said that it must be checked with the finger and fingernail, and on three sides, but I did not say this in Rava's name.
Rav Acha brei d'Rava checked a knife with his finger and fingernail and on three sides. Rav Ashi approved. Also Rav Kahana agrees.
(Rav Yemar): It must be checked with the finger and fingernail, but it need not be checked on three sides. We learn from R. Zeira;
(R. Zeira): Shechitah with a glowing hot knife it Kosher, for the blade cuts before burning through the Simanim.
Question: It burns the Simanim on the sides (of the blade, as it cuts)!
Answer: When the Simanim are cut, the sides of the cut immediately separate from each other (so the blade does not touch them).
Also regarding a cold knife, even if it has a nick on the side, it will not touch the Simanim!
(Rav Huna bar Rav Ketina): Three things have the same intolerance for nicks:
The prohibition of breaking a bone of the Korban Pesach;
A nick in the ear (or other parts) of a Bechor (firstborn male animal. Such a Mum disqualifies it from being offered as a Korban, and allows a Kohen to eat it like Chulin);
A Mum in (the Ervah of) a (female) animal.
(Rav Chisda): To this list we may add a nick on a knife for Shechitah.
Rav Huna listed only Kodshim matters.
The tolerance for all of these is the same as for a nick on the Mizbe'ach.