[123a - 39 lines; 123b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]וארבעיV'ARBA'EI- and four things

2)[line 2]עבודהAVODAH- in order to process hides into leather

3)[line 3]לפניוL'FANAV- before him, i.e. in the direction in which he is traveling

4)[line 3]לאחריוL'ACHARAV- behind him, i.e. in the direction from which he came

5)[line 6]ליגיוןLIGYON- legion

6)[line 8]קרקפליןKARKAFLIN- skins of the heads of human corpses (used in battle for superstitious purposes) (see Insights to Chulin 123:1)

7)[line 9]קרקפלו של ר' ישמעאל מונח בראש מלכיםKARKEFLO SHEL REBBI YISHMAEL MUNACH B'ROSH MELACHIM- the skin of Rebbi Yishmael's face (which was tragically flayed by the Romans who killed him) was worn on the heads of kings (see Avodah Zarah 11b)

8)[line 10]המפשיטHA'MAFSHIT- one who skins an animal [in order to make a leather bedspread or table cover] (this is accomplished by cutting the hide along the length of the belly of the animal and then peeling the skin from the sides of the cut)

9)[line 11]בטהורה ובטמאהB'TEHORAH U'TEMEI'AH- whether the animal has been ritually slaughtered and is Tahor (but the person who is skinning it is Tamei) or whether the animal died and is Tamei as a Neveilah (and the person who is skinning it is Tahor) (RASHI)

10a)[line 11]דקהDAKAH- (lit. thin, fine, tender) small domesticated farm animals (such as sheep and goats) and forest animals (such as deer, foxes, etc.)

b)[line 11]גסהGASAH- (lit. bulky, large) large domesticated farm animals (such as cattle) and forest animals (such as bears)

11)[line 11]לשטיחL'SHATI'ACH- in order to make a leather bedspread or table cover

12a)[line 12]כדי אחיזהKEDEI ACHIZAH- enough of the skin to grip it

b)[line 12]לחמתL'CHEMES- [if someone skins an animal] in order to make a water sack (this is accomplished by cutting the hide all around the neck and them peeling back the skin towards the tail (immediately after skinning it, the hide is inside-out)

c)[line 13]המרגילHA'MARGIL- if someone skins an animal in order to make a water sack, but instead of peeling back the skin from the head to the tail, he cuts the skin at the tail and proceeds to peel back the skin towards the head

13)[line 14]רבי יוחנן בן נוריREBBI YOCHANAN BEN NURI...- (Rebbi Yochanan Ben Nuri is discussing the laws of ha'Margil - see Insights to Chulin 123:4)

14)[line 17]טהור המופשטTAHOR HA'MUFSHAT- that which has been skinned is Tahor

15)[line 22]עור שכנגד הבשרOR SHE'KENEGED HA'BASAR- [a part of the] hide that is "against the skin," i.e. that has not yet been skinned

16)[line 34]טבולת יוםTEVULAS YOM (TEVUL YOM)

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he touches do not become Temei'im. Liquids that he touches do not become Rishon l'Tum'ah. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav Kares (see Background to Menachos 92:18).

(b)After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34), he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.


17)[line 1]עולת העוף לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעוןOLAS HA'OF L'REBBI ELAZAR B'REBBI SHIMON (KORBAN OLAS HA'OF)

(a)The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:

1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)

2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.

3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.

4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.

(b)According to the Chachamim the Kohen severs the two Simanim of the Olas ha'Of; Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon rules that he may only cut the majority of the two Simanim, but not their entirety. (TOSFOS DH Olas notes that the Gemara is asking that we should require the Kohen to cut a clearly visible Rov (majority), and not a bare Rov, when slaughtering an Olas ha'Of. Otherwise the question of the Gemara is not understandable, since Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon relies on the verse "v'Lo Yavdil" (i.e. we are not allowed to cut entire width of the Simanim, see Chulin 21b). Accordingly, we can never mandate cutting the entire width of the Simanim of Olas ha'Of.)

18)[line 24]כדי מעפורתKEDEI MA'AFORES- enough to be used as an apron

19)[line 26]חליםCHALIM- [is] sound, capable of restoration to its original strength or form

20)[line 27]טמא מדרסTAMEI MIDRAS (ZAV: MISHKAV U'MOSHAV)

(a)A Zav (see Background to Chulin 88:4), as well as a Zavah (see Background to Menachos 89:6), Nidah (see Background to Chulin 31:13) or Yoledes (see Background to Chulin 41:39), can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, Zavah, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under a Zav becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. The Mishnah (Kelim 27:2) states that an item of clothing can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of three Tefachim by three Tefachim and that a piece of leather can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of five Tefachim by five Tefachim. If they were smaller than that, they are not suitable for a Zav to sit upon and do not become Tamei through Midras.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

(d)A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or an object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way.

21)[line 29]איזמלIZMEL- cutting tool, knife

22)[line 32]צריTZARI- splits, cracks

23)[line 33]במקצע ובא לו דרך סביבותיוB'MEKATZE'A U'VA LO DERECH SEVIVOSAV- when he trimmed it (the skin) with a circular cut, going all around

24)[line 37]עושה ניפולOSEH NIPUL- is considered as if it has become detached from the animal

25)[last line]טפילהTEFEILAH- (O.F. plastre) plaster