CHAGIGAH 12 (25 Elul) ? Dedicated in memory of Yechiel Avraham Avigdor ben Eliyahu Glaser z'l, by his brother Yisrael and family. May Avigdor's children merit to grow in Torah and Yiras Shamayim, and become sources of pride and Nachas to their mother and to their father in Gan Eden.

1)

(a)How do we reconcile Rebbi Elazar, who, we just saw, learns from a Pasuk that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as from the earth till the heaven, with Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, who learns from another Pasuk that Adam was as tall as from one end of the heaven to the other?

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav lists ten things that were created on the first day of the creation. Hash-m created heaven and earth, Tohu and Vohu, light and darkness. What are the remaining four?

(c)'Tohu' was a green line that encircled the earth, and 'Vohu', the wet stones that were sunk into the bowels of the earth. What was created from ...

1. ... 'Kav Tohu'?

2. ... 'Avnei Vohu'?

1)

(a)We reconcile Rebbi Elazar, who we just saw, learns from a Pasuk that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as from the earth till the heaven, with Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, who learns from another Pasuk that Adam was as tall as from one end of the heaven to the other - by pointing out that the two Shi'urim are one and the same.

(b)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav lists ten things that were created on the first day of the creation. Hash-m created heaven and earth, Tohu and Vohu, light and darkness - wind and water, day and night.

(c)'Tohu' was a green line that encircled the earth, and 'Vohu', the wet stones that were sunk into the bowels of the earth. From ...

1. ... 'Kav Tohu' - Hash-m created darkness, and from ...

2. ... 'Avnei Vohu' - water.

2)

(a)We reconcile Rav Yehudah's statement (that light was created on the first day) with the Pasuk, which explicitly states that the luminaries were created on the fourth, by citing Rebbi Elazar's. What does Rebbi Elazar say? How does he interpret the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yar Elokim es ha'Or Ki Tov"?

(b)Rebbi Elazar concurs with Rebbi Yakov in the Beraisa. How do the Rabanan of Rebbi Yakov reconcile the Pasuk which says that light was created on the first day, with the Pasuk which says that the luminaries were created on the fourth?

(c)Hash-m created the world with ten forces (which presumably match the ten creations mentioned above. In any case, they certainly correspond to the ten Sefiros, and also correspond to what Chazal had in mind when they said that the world was created with ten commands - see Agados Maharsha). The first six are: Chochmah, Tevunah and Da'as, Ko'ach, Ga'arah (scolding) and Gevurah. What are the remaining four?

2)

(a)We reconcile Rav Yehudah's statement (that light was created on the first day) with the Pasuk, which explicitly states that the luminaries were created on the fourth, by citing Rebbi Elazar, who explains - that (due to the spirituality of the original light created on the first day) it was possible to see with it from one end of the world to the other. But when Hash-m saw the generations of the flood and of the tower, He decided that the world at large was not worthy of that light, He put it away for the Tzadikim to use in the World to Come, as the Torah writes "va'Yar Elokim es ha'Or Ki Tov" ('v'Ein Tov Ela Tzadikim'), and created new lights on the fourth day (i.e. night).

(b)Rebbi Elazar concurs with Rebbi Yakov in the Beraisa. According to the Rabanan of Rebbi Yakov - the light that was created on the first day refers in fact, to the luminaries, which Hash-m created then, but placed in the sky only on the fourth day.

(c)Hash-m created the world with ten forces (which in all likelihood, match the ten creations mentioned above. In any case, they certainly correspond to the ten Sefiros, and also to what Chazal had in mind when they said that the world was created with ten commands - see Agados Maharsha). The ten forces are: Chochmah, Tevunah and Da'as, Ko'ach, Ga'arah (scolding) and Gevurah - Tzedek, Mishpat, Chesed and Rachamim.

3)

(a)In which connection did Hash-m put the Midah of Ga'arah to good use at the creation of the world. What has that to do with the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Ani Kel Shakai, Prei u'Revei"?

(b)Another occasion is hinted in the Pasuk in Nachum "Go'er ba'Yam va'Yavsheihu, v'Chol ha'Naharos Hechriv". Which occasion?

3)

(a)Hash-m put the Midah of Ga'arah to good use at the creation of the world. When Hash-m created the world, it continued to spread outwards like two balls of thread (Din and Rachamim - see Agados Maharsha) - until He shouted at it to stop, as is hinted in the Pasuk "Ani Kel Shakai, Prei u'Revei" ("I am the G-d who said to the world 'Stop! ... '.)

(b)Another occasion is hinted in the Pasuk in Nachum "Go'er ba'Yam va'Yavsheihu, v'Chol ha'Naharos Hechriv" - which pertains to the creation of the water on the first day.

4)

(a)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether the heaven was created first and then the earth, or vice-versa. What do ...

1. ... Beis Shamai prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "Bereishis Bara Elokim ... "?

2. ... Beis Hillel prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "b'Yom Asos Hash-m Elokim ... "?

(b)How do Beis ...

1. ... Hillel query Beis Shamai from the Pasuk in Amos "ha'Boneh ba'Shamayim Ma'alosav, va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah"?

2. ... Beis Shamai retort from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Koh Amar Hash-m, ha'Shamayim Kis'i, v'ha'Aretz Hadom Raglai"?

(c)The Chachamim are of a third opinion. What do they maintain, based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Af Yadi Yasdah Aretz vi'Yemini Tipchah Shamayim, Korei Ani Aleihem Ya'amdu Yachdav"?

(d)How do Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai interpret "Ya'amdu Yachdav"?

4)

(a)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether the heaven was created first and then the earth, or vice-versa.

1. Beis Shamai prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "Bereishis Bara Elokim es ha'Shamayim v'es ha'Aretz" - that the heaven was created first.

2. Beis Hillel prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "b'Yom Asos Hash-m Elokim Eretz v'Shamayim" - that the earth was created first.

(b)Beis ...

1. ... Hillel queries Beis Shamai from the Pasuk "ha'Boneh ba'Shamayim Ma'alosav, va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah" - since when does one build an attic before the ground floor (because this Pasuk appears to consider the earth the major creation, and the heaven, no more than an attic)?!

2. ... Shamai retorts from the Pasuk "Koh Amar Hash-m, ha'Shamayim Kis'i, v'ha'Aretz Hadom Raglai" - and since when does one construct the foot-stool before the throne (because this Pasuk suggests that the heaven is the major creation, and this world merely a foot-stool)?!

(c)The Chachamim are of a third opinion. They infer from the Pasuk "Af Yadi Yasdah Aretz vi'Yemini Tipchah Shamayim, Korei Ani Aleihem Ya'amdu Yachdav" - that both heaven and earth were created simultaneously (because this Pasuk suggests that the two creations are of equally important).

(d)Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai interpret "Ya'amdu Yachdav" - to mean that, once they were created, they became inseparable.

5)

(a)In any case, the Pesukim quoted by Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel appear to contradict each other, because, the Heaven and the earth cannot both have been created first. How does Resh Lakish resolve this apparent discrepancy?

(b)According to Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina "Shamayim" is the acronym of 'Sham Mayim'. What does the Tana of the Beraisa say?

(c)How did Rebbi Akiva in the name of Nachum Ish Gamzu explain the word "es" in the first Pasuk in the Torah to Rebbi Yishmael? How would we have explained the Pasuk had the Torah omitted ...

1. ... both "es ha" (in "es ha'Shamayim and in "v'*es ha*'Aretz")?

2. ... the second "es" in "v'*es ha*'Aretz" only?

(d)Seeing as the opening Pasuk mentions the heaven first, why does the Torah go on to discuss the earthly creations first? What Mashal do we cite from Tana d'Bei Rebbi Yishmael?

5)

(a)In any case, the Pesukim quoted by Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel appear to contradict each other, because, the Heaven and the earth cannot both have been created first. To resolve this apparent discrepancy - Resh Lakish explains that even though Hash-m created the heaven first, it was the earth that He set up first (see Agados Maharsha).

(b). According to Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina "Shamayim" is the acronym of 'Sham Mayim'. The Tana of the Beraisa says it stands for 'Esh u'Mayim'.

(c)Rebbi Akiva in the name of Nachum Ish Gamzu explains that, had the Torah omitted ...

1. ... "es ha" in ("es ha'Shamayim and in v'*es ha*'Aretz") - it would have implied that Shamayim and Aretz are names of Hash-m.

2. ... the second "es" in "v'*es ha*'Aretz" - that heaven and earth were created simultaneously (and "es ha'Aretz" comes to teach us that the heaven was created first).

(d)Despite the fact that the opening Pasuk in Bereishis mentions the heaven first (i.e. Hash-m called it to be created first), the Torah goes on to discuss the earthly creations first - as an acknowledgment for their having come into existence together with the heaven (even though it was called last, and even though, it is untypical of the earth, which usually behaves sluggishly, as opposed to the heaven, which reacts with alacrity). Tana d'Bei Rebbi Yishmael gives a Mashal to a king who ordered his subjects to appear at the palace gates next morning. When, next morning, he found that the women had arrived before the men, he praised them, because it is customary for the men to rise earlier. (See also Agados Maharsha, in whose opinion, Rebbi Yishmael holds like Beis Hillel - that the earth was created first.)

12b----------------------------------------12b

6)

(a)According to Rebbi Yosi in a Beraisa, of what significance is the sequence: earth, pillars, water, mountains, winds and storm-wind?

(b)What supports the storm-wind?

(c)The Rabanan disagree with Rebbi Yosi. What do they learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Yatzev Gevulos Amim l'Mispar Bnei Yisrael" (Ha'azinu - according to some)?

2. ... "Chatzvah Amudeha Shiv'ah" (Mishlei - according to others)?

(d)Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua has a fourth opinion. What does he learn from the Pasuk "v'Tzadik Yesod Olam" (ibid.)?

6)

(a)According to Rebbi Yosi in a Beraisa, the sequence: earth, pillars, water, mountains, winds and storm-wind - describes the structure of the world in its right order: the earth rests on pillars, the pillars on water, the water on mountains ... .

(b)The storm-wind is supported by - the Arm of Hash-m (His Might).

(c)The Rabanan disagree with Rebbi Yosi. They learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Yatzeiv Gevulos Amim l'Mispar Bnei Yisrael" (according to some) - that the world rests on twelve pillars (corresponding to the twelve tribes).

2. ... "Chatzvah Amudeha Shiv'ah" (according to others) - that the world rests on seven pillars.

(d)Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua has a fourth opinion. He learns from the Pasuk "v'Tzadik Yesod Olam" - that it rests on only one foundation, which is called 'Tzadik'.

7)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah, there are two heavens. What is his source for this?

(b)According to Resh Lakish, there are seven heavens: Vilon, Raki'a, Shechakim, Zevul, Ma'on and Machon. What is the name of the seventh?

(c)Vilon appears each morning and disappears each evening, but plays no positive role in the running of the world. The only other heaven with which we have visual contact is Raki'a. What is its function?

(d)What role does Shechakim (whose root is 'li'Shechok' - to grind) play?

7)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah, there are two heavens - as the Pasuk writes in Ekev - Hen la'Hashem Elokecha ha'Shamayim u'Shemei ha'Shamayim.

(b)According to Resh Lakish, there are seven heavens: Vilon, Raki'a, Shechakim, Zevul, Ma'on, Machon - and Arvos.

(c)Vilon appears each morning and disappears each evening, but plays no positive role in the running of the world. The only other heaven with which we have visual contact is Raki'a - whose function is to house the sun, the moon, the stars and the Mazalos.

(d)In Shechakim (whose root is 'li'Shechok' - to grind), Hash-m grinds Man for the Tzadikim in preparation for the World to Come.

8)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Melachim "Banoh Banisi Beis Zevul Lach"? What happens there?

(b)Ma'on houses many groups of angels. What do they do there?

(c)Why are they silent by day?

(d)We learn this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, uva'Laylah Shiro Imi". What else does Resh Lakish learn from that Pasuk?

8)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk "Banoh Banisi Beis Zevul Lach" - that Zevul houses Yerushalayim shel Ma'alah and the Beis-Hamikdash shel Ma'alah (see Agados Maharsha) with the Mizbe'ach, on which Michael the leading angel stands and brings Korbanos.

(b)Ma'on houses many groups of angels - who sing Shirah each night.

(c)They remain silent by day - in deference to Yisrael, who are singing Shirah then.

(d)We learn this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, uva'Laylah Shiro Imi". Resh Lakish however - learns from there that Hash-m extends a thread of loving-kindness by day on anyone who studies Torah by night.

9)

(a)What does Rebbi Levi say about someone who stops learning Torah to talk idle chatter?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Hashkifah mi'Me'on Kodshecha min ha'Shamayim"?

9)

(a)Rebbi Levi says that anyone who stops learning Torah to talk idle chatter - will be fed boiling hot coals.

(b)We learn from the Pasuk "Hashkifah mi'Me'on Kodshecha min ha'Shamayim" - that 'Ma'on' is a heaven.

10)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Yiftach Hash-m L'cha es Otzaro ha'Tov" that many things are stored in the sixth heaven 'Machon'. In fact, there are six. What do they all have in common? What purpose do they serve?

(b)It serves as an attic for bad dew and bowls of rain-water. Which two store-houses are kept there?

(c)Storm-winds are kept there too. What kind of door shuts off the cave of thick smoke?

(d)How does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav reconcile the above with the Pasuk in Tehilim that we recite each morning "Halelu es Hash-m min ha'Aretz ... Esh u'Varad, Sheleg v'Kitor Ru'ach Se'arah Osah Devaro", implying that some of the above list are stored here on earth?

10)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Yiftach Hash-m Lecha es Otzaro ha'Tov" that many things are stored in the sixth heaven 'Machon'. In fact, there are six - all of which are used for punishments (see also Tosfos DH 'Otzros'.

(b)It serves as an attic for bad dew and bowls of rain-water - and as store-houses of snow and hail.

(c)Storm-winds are kept there too - and the cave of thick smoke is shut off with doors of fire.

(d)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav reconciles the above with the Pasuk in Tehilim that we recite each morning "Halelu es Hash-m min ha'Aretz ... Esh u'Varad, Sheleg v'Kitor Ru'ach Se'arah Osah Devaro" (implying that some of the above list are stored here on earth - because that is what happened after David ha'Melech prayed for them to be moved there (though, according to Rashi, who maintains that these stores are all used for punishment, it is not clear why he should have done so).

11)

(a)Arvos, a storehouse containing numerous treasures, is the most multi-purpose of all the heavens. It contains righteousness, justice, charity and stores of life, of peace and of blessing. what else does it contain based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Shmuel " v'Hayesah Nefesh Adoni Tzerurah bi'Tzeror ha'Chayim es Hash-m Elokecha" 1)?

2. ... in Yeshayah "Ki Ru'ach mi'Lefanai Ya'atof, u'Neshamos Asher Asisi"?

3. ... in Tehilim "Geshem Nedavos Tanif Elokim ... Ata Konantah"?

(b)The Ofanim, Serafim and Chayos ha'Kodesh all reside in Arvos. Who else is to be found there?

(c)The Kisei ha'Kavod of the Living G-d dwells above them all. Is that still in Arvos or above it? Which three layers of cloud surround Him?

(d)We learn this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Solu l'Rochev ba'Aravos b'Kah Shemo". What do we learn from the 'Gezeirah Shavah' "Rochev" "Rochev" from the Pasuk in v'Zos ha'Berachah "Rochev Shamayim b'Ezrecha"?

11)

(a)Arvos, a storehouse containing numerous treasures, is the most multi-purpose of all the heavens. It contains righteousness, justice, charity and stores of life, of peace and of blessing, and based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Shmuel "v'Hayesah Nefesh Adoni Tzerurah bi'Tzeror ha'Chayim es Hash-m Elokecha" - the Neshamos of Tzadikim.

2. ... in Yeshayah "Ki Ru'ach mi'Lefanai Ya'atof, u'Neshamos Asher Asisi" - the Ruchos and the Neshamos that have yet to be created (which are either one and the same, or Ru'ach means the Soul and Neshamah, breath. Alternatively, they refer to the Ru'ach and the Neshamah, which, when added to the Nefesh, comprise the basic spiritual make-up of every person).

3. ... in Tehilim "Geshem Nedavos Tanif Elokim ... Ata Konantah" - the 'Tal shel Techiyah' (the dew with which Hash-m will eventually revive the dead).

(b)The Ofanim, Serafim, Chayos ha'Kodesh - and other ministering angels, all reside in Arvos.

(c)The Kisei ha'Kavod of the Living G-d dwells above them all - also in Arvos. It is surrounded by three layers of cloud comprising 'Choshech, Anan va'Arafel'.

(d)We learn this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Solu l'Rochev ba'Aravos b'Kah Shemo". We learn from the 'Gezeirah Shavah' "Rochev" "Rochev" from the Pasuk in v'Zos ha'Berachah "Rochev Shamayim b'Ezrecha" - that Arvos is the name of a heaven.

12)

(a)How do we reconcile the Pasuk which describes the darkness that surrounds Hash-m's Throne, with the Pasuk in Daniel which specifically writes " ... Yada Mah ba'Chashochah, u'Nehora Imei Shari", implying that there is no darkness in the Realm of Hash-m?

12)

(a)We reconcile the Pasuk which describes the darkness that surrounds Hash-m's Throne, with the Pasuk in Daniel which specifically writes " ... Yada Mah ba'Chashochah, u'Nehora Imei Shari", implying that there is no darkness in the Realm of Hash-m - by confining the latter to Hash-m's inner chambers.

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