LOADING AND UNLOADING (Yerushalmi Halachah 10 Daf 9b)

תני רובץ ולא רבצן


Beraisa: "Crouching'' - but not if it usually crouches.

וחזר תני פורק עמו אפילו מאה פעמים ביום.


Question (another Beraisa): "Unloading'' - even one hundred times a day...?

הן דתימר רובץ ולא רבצן בההוא דמפיל גרמיה והן דתימר פורק עמו אפילו מאה פעמים בההוא דאניס.


Answer: The first Beraisa (that requires only once) refers to when it is discernible that the owner is intentionally doing it; the second Beraisa refers to when it is an accident.

כי תפגע יכול פגיעה ממש ת''ל כי תראה אי כי תראה יכול אפילו רחוק מאה מיל תלמוד לומר כי תפגע.


The same pasuk states, "When you shall 'bump into'" - I might think that it refers to physical proximity, but the pasuk states, "You will see''. Based on that, even if he saw it 100 mil away, he must help; that is why the pasuk says, "...when you shall bump into''.

הא כיצד שיערו חכמים אחד משבעה ומחצה במיל וזהו ריס.


How is this done? The Chachamim evaluated that it can be as much as 7.5 mil which is the same as a ris.

עזוב תעזוב זו פריקה הקם תקים זו טעינה.


"You shall surely help him'' - this refers to unloading; "You shall surely stand him up'' - this refers to loading.

רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר כשם שפורקו מן התורה כך טוענו מן התורה.


R. Shimon ben Yochai: Just as unloading is a Torah law (and is for free) so loading is a Torah law (and is for free).

חמור ישראל ומשאוי של עכו''ם דברי הכל פורק וטוען.


If it is a Jew's donkey and a gentile's load, all agree that he must unload and load.

חמור עכו''ם ומשאוי של ישראל כדברי חכמים לא פורק ולא טוען כדברי ר' שמעון פורק לא טוען:


If it is a gentile's donkey and a Jew's load, the Chachamim would say that he is not required to unload or load; R. Shimon says that he must unload but he does not need to load.


HELPING HIS FATHER OR HIS RAV (Yerushalmi Halachah 11 Daf 9b)

משנה אבידתו ואבידת אביו שלו קודמת


(Mishnah): If he is able to retrieve his own lost item or his father's, his own item comes first.

אבידתו ואבידת רבו שלו קודמת


If he is able to retrieve his own lost item or his Rav's, his own item comes first.

אבידת אביו ואבידת רבו של רבו קודמת לשל אביו שאביו הביאו לחיי העה''ז ורבו שלימדו חכמה הביאו לחיי העה''ב


If he is able to retrieve his father's lost item or his Rav's, his Rav's item comes first, as his father brought him to this (temporary) world but his Rav who taught him wisdom, brings him to the (eternal) world

אם היה אביו שקול כנגד רבו אבידת אביו קודמת


If his father is equally as great as his Rav, his father's item comes first.

היה אביו ורבו נושאין משאוי מניח את של רבו ואח''כ מניח את של אביו


If his father and his Rav are each carrying a load, he must help down his Rav and then afterwards help down his father's.

היה אביו ורבו בבית השבי פודה את רבו ואח''כ פודה את אביו


If his father and his Rav were captured, he must redeem his Rav before his father.

אבל אם היה אביו תלמיד חכם פודה את אביו ואחר כך פודה את רבו:


But if his father was a Torah scholar, he must redeem his father before his Rav.

גמרא תני אי זהו רבו שלימדו חכמה כל שפתח לו תחילה. דברי ר' מאיר


(Gemara - Beraisa): R. Meir - Who is called his Rav that taught him wisdom? The first Rav to teach him.

רבי יודן אומר כל שרוב תלמודו ממנו


R. Yudan: The Rav that taught him most of his knowledge.

רבי יוסי אומר כל שהאיר עיניו במשנתו.


R. Yosi: Whoever enlightened his eyes with (even one) Mishnah.

רב כרבי מאיר ורבי יוחנן כרבי יודה שמואל כר' יוסי.


Rav follows the opinion of R. Meir; R. Yochanan follows R. Yehudah and Shmuel follows R. Yosi...

רב כרבי מאיר חד בר נש פתח פומיה דרב ושמע דדמך ובזע עלוי.


Rav follows R. Meir - One person began teaching Rav Torah when he was young and when Rav heard that he had died, he tore his clothing in the way that one tears upon the passing of his Rav.

ר' יוחנן כרבי יודה רבי יוחנן הוה סליק מטיבריה לציפורי חמא חד בר נש [דף י עמוד א] נחת מן תמן


R. Yochanan follows R. Yehudah - R. Yochanan was travelling from Tiveria to Tzipori. He saw a person travelling in the opposite direction...

א''ל מה קלא במדינתא.


R. Yochanan: What is the noise that I hear coming from Tzipori?

א''ל חד רבן דמך וכל עמא פריין מיטפלא ביה.


The person: One Rav passed away and everyone is running to escort him at his funeral.

ידע ר' יוחנן דהוא רבי חנינא. שלח ואייתי מאנין טבין דשובתא ובזעון.


R. Yochanan knew that it was R. Chanina who had passed away and he sent for his finest Shabbos garments and tore them.

[דף ח עמוד ב (עוז והדר)] ולא כן תני כל קרע שאינו של בהלה אינו קרע.


Question: Did we not learn that if the tear is not done in a panic (i.e. immediately) it is not valid - so why did R. Yochanan wait for his Shabbos garments?

רבי יוחנן בעה מיעבד דרבה ומוקריתיה. ולא ידעין אין משום דהוא רביה אין משום שמועות הרעות.


Answer: R. Yochanan wished to do a significant act to show his supreme respect for R. Chanina. We do not know if it was because R. Chanina was his Rav or if it was because of the terrible news (that the Head of the Beis Din - i.e. R. Chanina - had passed away).

מילתיה דרבי חייה בר ווא בציפורי חמא כל עמא פריי א''ל למה כולי עלמא פריי.


However, from the story we see that R. Chanina was not R. Yochanan's primary Rav - R. Chanina was walking to Tziporim leaning on R. Chiya. R. Chanina saw that everyone was running and he asked R. Chiya why they were doing this.

א''ל רבי יוחנן יתיב דריש בבי מדרשא דרבי בנייה וכל עמא פריי מישמעיניה


R. Chiya: R. Yochanan is expounding in the Study Hall of R. Banayah and everyone is running to hear him.

,אמר בריך רחמנא דחמי לי פורין עד דאנא בחיים ובאגדתא פשטית ליה חוץ ממשלי וקהלת. הדא אמרה כל תלמיד ותלמיד


R. Chanina: Baruch Hash-m, for He showed me the fruits of my labor in my lifetime. R. Yochanan learned from me all areas of Aggada except for the Books of Mishlei and Koheles. This shows that he was not R. Yochanan's primary Rav, as he only taught him Aggada. Rather, R. Yochanan held every student must tear over his Rav, even if he is not his primary Rav.

שמואל כר' יוסי אמר חד בר נש אסבר לשמואל בשני מפתיחות אחד יורד לאמת בית השיחי ואחד פותח כיון. שהיה מוריד ידו עד שיחיו היה פותח כיון. ושמע דדמך ובזע עלוי:


Shmuel follows R. Yosi - One person explained to Shmuel the Mishnah (in Maseches Tamid that teaches that there were two keys used for opening the Heichal of the Temple in the morning. Next to the Shaar Hagadol - The Great Gate, that had to be opened from the inside; was a small doorway. The person entering would first open the small door - with the first key - and enter. He entered into a 'teh' - a chamber; and with the second key, opened the door that was located between the teh and the Heichal. Once inside the Heichal, he would open the Shaar HaGadol from the inside. This person explained to Shmuel the meaning of the Mishnah that teaches concerning the two keys, that in order to use one key, he inserted his arm into the deep keyhole until his armpit. The second key was easily used to open the second doorway. And when Shmuel heard that this person had died, he tore his garments. (We see that Shmuel treated him as his primary Rav, even though he only taught Shmuel this one understanding of a Mishnah.)


ONE WHO DEPOSITED ANIMALS OR VESSELS (Yerushalmi Halachah 1 Daf 10a)

משנה המפקיד אצל חבירו בהמה או כלים ונגנבו או שאבדו שילם ולא רצה לישבע שהרי אמרו שומר חנם נשבע ויוצא


(Mishnah): One who deposits an animal or vessels with his friend and they were stolen or lost, he pays if he does not wish swear (that he was not negligent nor did he take it for himself) - as Chazal said that an unpaid watchman can exempt himself from payment by swearing.

נמצא הגנב משלם תשלומי כפל


If the thief was found, he must pay double to the watchman (since the watchman had already paid in full for the item, thereby becoming its owner).

טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה למי הוא משלם למי שהפקדון אצלו נשבע ולא רצה לשלם נמצא הגנב משלם תשלומי כפל


If the thief slaughtered or sold it, he must pay 4 or 5 times the value of animal (4 for a sheep and 5 for a cow) to the watchman. If he paid because he did not wished to swear, if the thief was found, he pays double to the watchman.

טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה למי הוא משלם לבעל הפיקדון:


If he slaughtered or sold it, he pays 4 or 5. To whom does he pay? To the owner.

גמרא מנן תיתי ליה


Question: From where do we know that he pays double to the watchman?

אם המצא תמצא בידו הגניבה וכי אין אנו יודעין שאם ימצא הגנב ישלם שנים ומה ת''ל שנים ישלם אם אינו עניין לו תניהו עניין לשלפניו.


Answer: The pasuk states (Shemos 22, 3), "if the stolen item shall be found in his hand'' - do we not know that if found in his hand, he must pay double? What do we learn from the phrase "he shall pay double''? If it is not referring to this case (of a regular thief), it must be referring to our case, that if the watchman had paid for the item, he receives double if the thief is found.

(רבי עאל) [רב נחמן] לפירקא דרבי יודן אמר קומיה הדא א''ל אמור דבתרה נשבע ולא רצה לשלם נמצא הגנב משלם תשלומי כפל טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה למי משלם לבעל הפקדון. וישלם למי שהפקדון אצלו


Rav Nachman went to the class of R.Yudan. R. Yudan expounded the above teaching. Rav Nachman said to him, "Teach over the latter part - 'if he swore because he did not wish to pay, if the thief was found he pays double; if he slaughtered or sold it, he pays 4 or 5. To whom does he pay? To the owner'. Why doesn't he pay the watchman?

[דף י עמוד ב] רבי נסה בשם רבי יונה חיים שנים ישל' למקום שהקרן מהלך שם הכפל מהלך.


R. Nasa citing R. Yona: The pasuk states (Shemos 22, 3), "he shall pay double'' - this teaches that the same person that receives the primary payment also receives the double payment.