(a)If they bring in a salty dish together with bread, the Berachah over the salty dish will exempt the bread from a Berachah. To which sort of salty dish would bread be secondary?

(b)Rabba bar bar Chanah claimed that they would follow Rebbi Yochanan to eat the fruit of Ginusar, and that 'Ki Havinan Bei Mei'ah, Menaktinan Lei le'Chol Chad ve'Chad Asarah Asarah'. What does this mean?

(c)What happened to the various Amora'im when they partook of the fruit of Ginusar?

(d)There was a tree on Har Hamelech (in the days of Yanai ha'Melech), from which they used to obtain forty Sa'ah of young birds, which were hatched three times monthly, to feed the workers who cut the figs. What is the Gemara coming to teach us with this statement?


(a)It is unusual to serve something very salty as the main dish, with bread served only in a secondary capacity. Therefore, the Gemara concludes, our Mishnah must be speaking when he first ate fruit of Ginusar, which is so salty that it requires an exceptionally salty dish to counter its sweetness (as we shall see in the Gemara). And it is together with that salty dish, that they brought bread.

(b)When there were a hundred Talmidim following Rebbi Yochanan, Rabba bar bar Chanah was saying, they would serve each one ten fruits of Ginusar (and when there were ten, they would serve each one a hundred).

(c)The fruit of Ginusar affected everyone who partook of it in some way or another: the one swore that he had not eaten anything substantial (even after having partaken no less than a hundred fruits; the other left him with such a smooth forehead, that even a fly would slip off; all the hair of a third one fell out, and a fourth, went out of his mind.

(d)If they required forty Sa'ah of young birds to feed the fig-pickers, imagine how many pickers (and how many figs) there must have been in that harvest (particularly since figs do not all ripen at the same time, so that we are speaking of only a fraction of the entire harvest of figs that was actually picked)!


(a)It is a great Yichus for a Kohen to marry a Bas Kohen. How many pairs of brothers who were Kohanim married pairs of Benos Kohen who were sisters in Gufnis (See Maharsha regarding the significance of the name 'Gufnis'), and how many such cases could they find in Bavel (from Sura to Neherda'a)?

(b)What significance does the Gemara attach to salt and to a dish with gravy?


(a)They found eighty pairs of brothers who were Kohanim in Gufnis, aho were married to pairs of sisters who were Benos Kohen. In the whole of Bavel, they managed to find only one pair of sisters who were Kohanos married to two brothers - who were Talmidei Chachamim (Rami bar Chama and Mar Ukva bar Chama), but not Kohanim.

(b)A meal without salt is not a meal and a dish without gravy is not a dish, says the Gemara.


(a)According to Rabban Gamliel, which Berachah Acharonah does one recite over grapes, figs and pomegranates?

(b)What is the opinion of the Chachamim?

(c)And what does Rebbi Akiva say?

(d)In the opinion of Rebbi Tarfon, which Berachah Rishonah does one recite over water?


(a)Rabban Gamliel maintains that one needs to Bensch after any one of the seven kinds.

(b)According to the Chachamim, one recites 'Al ha'Eitz' over the five fruits contained in the seven species.

(c)Whereas according to Rebbi Akiva, even if one's main meal consists of vegetables, one is obligated to Bensch.

(d)According to Rebbi Tarfon, the Berachah Rishonah for water (when it is drunk to quench one's thirst) is 'Borei Nefashos' - this is because water does not sustain, like other foods do, it only cools down the body's heat - (Tif'eres Yisrael). (Note: According to Rebbi Tarfon, no Berachah Acharonah is required after drinking water.


(a)What is Rabban Gamliel's source for necessitating Bensching over all the seven kinds?

(b)Seeing as the Pasuk does indeed mention all seven kinds before writing "ve'Achalta ve'Sava'ata u'Veirachta", why do the Rabbanan restrict Bensching to bread?

(c)What does Rabban Gamliel do with the fact that 'Eretz' is written where it is?


(a)Rabban Gamliel maintains that the Pasuk "ve'Achalta ve'Sa'va'ata u'Veirachta" pertains to all the seven kinds mentioned in the previous Pasuk.

(b)The Rabbanan argue that the Torah (after having already written "Eretz Chitah u'Se'orah"), repeats "Eretz", to break between the former six and bread, which is written after the last "Eretz" (to intimate that "u'Veirachta" is restricted to bread.

(c)Rabban Gamliel answers that the Torah adds the word "Eretz" to differentiate between the "Chitah" mentioned before and the "Lechem" that is mentioned afterwards - to teach us that someone who chews wheat does not need to Bensch.


(a)Over what kinds of food does one recite 'Mezonos' before, and 'Al ha'Michyah' after, eating.

(b)According to Rav Chisda, the Berachah Acharonah over fruit concludes 'Al ha'Aretz ve'Al Peiroseha', and according to Rebbi Yochanan 'Al ha'Aretz ve'Al ha'Peiros'. What makes this version of the Machlokes illogical?

(c)Then how do we amend it?


(a)One recites 'Mezonos' before, and 'Al ha'Michyah' after any food that is prepared from one of the five kinds of grain (wheat and spelt [a type of wheat], barley, and rye or oats [both types of barley]).

(b)It is not logical for Rav Chisda, who lived in Bavel, to have recited 'Al ha'Aretz ve'Al Peiroseha'(*'its* fruits' refers to the fruits of Eretz Yisrael), or for Rebbi Yochanan, who lived in Eretz Yisrael, 'al ha'Aretz ve'Al ha'Peiros', which is more appropriate for Bavel).

(c)The Gemara therefore, switches the opinions.



(a)According to some Amora'im, no Berachah Acharonah is required over vegetables or over water. What does Rav papa say?

(b)What did Rav Ashi used to do, and what is the Halachah?


(a)Rav Papa rules that one recites a Berachah Acharonah over all foods - even over vegetables and water.

(b)Whenever Rav Ashi would remember (evidently, the Halachah was not yet clarified in his days) - he would do like Rav Papa, and recite a Berachah Acharonah over everything.


(a)There is nothing that requires a Berachah Acharonah but not a Berachah Rishonah. There are however, things that require a Berachah Rishonah, but no Berachah Acharonah. What would these be ...

1. ... according to the Amora'im whom we cited above?

2. ... according to Rav Papa?

(b)Which Berachah did the B'nei Eretz Yisrael used to recite after removing their Tefilin?

(c)According to them, what is it that requires a Berachah before and not after?


(a)According to ...

1. ... the Amora'im cited above, it is vegetables or water that require a Berachah before eating, but not afterwards.

2. ... Rav Papa, it is Mitzvos.

(b)The Benei Eretz Yisrael would recite the Berachah - 'Lishmor Chukav', after removing their Tefilin.

(c)So according to them - it is Besamim, that require a Berachah before but not afterwards. (Tosfos DH 've'Livnei' does not know why the Gemara does not establish the Beraisa by other Mitzvos, such as Tzitzis, Lulav and Succah, where the Benei Eretz Yisrael agree that no Berachah is required after their performance.)


(a)Of all foods the size of an egg, which is the healthiest?

(b)What did Ravin mean when he said, 'Tava Bei'sasa Gulgalta mi'Shita Kaisi Sulta'?

(c)According to Rav Dimi, what is healthier still than a slightly-boiled (and still runny) egg?


(a)The healthiest food the size of an egg - is an egg.

(b)A slightly boiled egg (that is still runny), Ravin informs us - is better than six Lugin (a Lug equals six egg-volumes) of flour.

(c)Rav Dimi points out that an egg that has been roasted until it is hard - is healthy still than a slightly boiled one. (Note: Although many of the Gemara's cures are probably effective, we do not on principle, accept them nowadays, either because we do not always fully understand what the Gemara means, or because the nature of people has changed, which means that the medications may have changed, too.)


(a)Which kind of vegetable is considered a meal (and which Rebbi Akiva therefore maintains requires Bensching)?

(b)Why should one chew the spleen of an animal, but not swallow it?

(c)And why would one boil leek and swallow it but not chew it?


(a)The only vegetable that is sufficiently satisfying to make a meal, according to the Gemara - is a cabbage.

(b)One chews the spleen of an animal - because it is good for the teeth; but one should then spit it out, and not swallow it - because it is bad for the stomach.

(c)Leek, on the other hand, is good for the stomach, but bad for the teeth. Consequently - one should boil it well, and swallow it without chewing it.


(a)What is the effect of eating food that has only partially grown?

(b)Until which stage of growth does this apply?

(c)When they brought raw vegetables before Ameimar, Rav Ashi and Mar Zutra - before four hours in the morning had passed, the former two ate, but Mar Zutra did not. Why were the former two surprised at Mar Zutra?

(d)How did Mar Zutra justify himself?


(a)Eating food that has only partially grown, hampers one's growth.

(b)The above only applies - when the food has grown to less than twenty-five percent of its ultimate size.

(c)Ameimar and Rav Ashi were puzzled at Mar Zutra's refusal to eat raw vegetables before the end of the fourth hour. If he followed the opinion of Rav Yitzchak, who says that one should refrain from speaking with someone who has eaten vegetables within four hours, then why had he just been speaking with them - after they had eaten raw vegetables within four hours of daybreak?

(d)Mar Zutra explained that he followed the other statement of Rav Yitzchak, which forbids someone to eat raw vegetables within four hours of daybreak, but not to speak with someone who has.


(a)What does the Gemara say about a tiny fish that is found among the reeds?

(b)And what does the Gemara say about the neck (the Beis ha'Shechitah) of the animal?

(c)Mangold (a kind of beet) is healthy, but what are the advantages of eating cabbage?

(d)Which other two things, besides Mei Sisin (a type of herb), the womb and the lobe of the liver, are included in the list of things which the Beraisa considers healthy?


(a)Even a tiny fish (provided it has fully grown) which lives among the reeds is healthy ('revives the soul') - since it too, has a soul (of life).

(b)The neck of the animal is healthy, says the Gemara - because it is 'Karov le'Nefesh' (near the heart and the stomach).

(c)Cabbage, besides being healthy, also sustains.

(d)Honey (which the Gra omits) and the stomach (called 'Keivah') are also healthy.


(a)According to Abaye, turnip, which is unhealthy when eaten on its own, is healthy when it is cooked with juicy meat. What does Rava say?

(b)Rebbi Yochanan agrees with Rava's opinion. What do Shmuel and Rav Papa hold?

(c)Why did Rava refer to Rav Papa as 'Sudni'?


(a)Rava maintains that turnip is healthy - provided one does not drink wine after it.

(b)Shmuel and Rav papa hold that turnip is healthy - when it is well cooked with many large logs of wood.

(c)'Sudni' means 'manufacturer of date-beer', Rav Papa's profession - which is why Rava called him by that name ('Sudni' is the acronym of 'Sod Hash-m li'Yerei'av', meaning that Rav Papa was a G-d-fearing man, who was on the level of receiving the secrets of Hash-m).


(a)Salted fish is unhealthy on certain days after it has been salted. When does the salt make no difference?

(b)What is a good antidote for someone who eats it when it is not well cooked?

(c)When does one not recite a Berachah over water?


(a)The salt will have no harmful effects - if the fish is well-cooked.

(b)Even if it is not - beer is a good antidote for it.

(c)No Berachah is required for water that is drunk to remove a bone.