[52a - 47 lines; 52b - 58 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Rashi 52a DH Lo Salka Daitach ד"ה לא סלקא דעתך:
The words "Al ha'Mazon sheb'Techilah" על המזון שבתחילה
should be "Al ha'Mazon Techilah" על המזון תחילה
 Rashi DH Hachi Garsinan, Ela Trei Tana'ei ד"ה הכי גרסינן אלא תרי תנאי:
(a) The Maharsha erased the words "Tana d'Rebbi Chiya" תנא דרבי חייא (since Beis Shamai of the Mishnah does not argue with Rebbi Chiya. Rather, they agree with each other, as Rashi mentions on 53b DH Ba Lahem. See also the Maharsha to the Mishnah (51b), who also emends the word "Amar" to read "Amru," and "d'Masnisin" to read "d'Masnisa," which adds to the clarity of Rashi.
(b) It is also possible that Rashi feels that the Tana of the end of the Mishnah argues with the Tana of the beginning of the Mishnah. If that is true, the only emendation that the words of Rashi need is that they should read "v'Tana d'Masnisin dil'Eil v'Rebbi (and not d'Rebbi) Yehudah...." (M. KORNFELD)
 Gemara 52b [line 38]:
u'Veis Hillel Omrim, Im Shamash Talmid Chacham Hu ובית הלל אומרים אם שמש תלמיד חכם הוא
The Girsa in the Rif and the Rosh (and Beis Nasan) is "b'Shamash Talmid Chacham Askinan"
(According to our Girsa, it must be that even according to Beis Hillel one may sometimes use a Shamash who is an Am ha'Aretz, such as when he does not find a Shamash who is a Talmid Chacham. It is preferable only l'Chatchilah to use a Talmid Chacham. -Hagahos Dikdukei Sofrim)
1)[line 1]אין משגיחין בבת קולEIN MASHGICHIN B'VAS KOL (BAS KOL)
(a)One of the minor forms of prophecy is called Bas Kol (lit. echo), where certain individuals on a high spiritual status hear a heavenly voice. The Gemara in numerous places cites instances when a Bas Kol was heard, relaying information from Heaven to the earth.
(b)The Halachic ruling (Bava Metzia 59b) is that we do not accept the information relayed by a Bas Kol when it contradicts the majority opinion of the Sages. The Tana of our Beraisa, according to the second answer of the Gemara, rules more stringently; we do not accept the testimony of a Bas Kol even if it follows the majority opinion. (Beis Hillel were the majority at the time, and yet the Tana saw it necessary to rule explicitly that the Halachah follows the rulings of Beis Hillel — TOSFOS DH v'Rebbi)
2)[line 6]משלשלןMESHALSHELAN- links or combines them
3a)[line 23]עיולי יומאIYULEI YOMA- the beginning (lit. bringing in) of the day
b)[line 23]אפוקי יומאAPUKEI YOMA- the end (lit. letting out) of the day
4)[line 32]טעמו, פגמוTA'AMO, PAGMO- if one drinks from it (lit. tastes it), he disqualifies it
5)[line 42]שני ... שלישיSHENI ... SHELISHI (THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TUM'AH)
(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:
1.Sources of Tum'ah
2.Objects that can become Tamei
3.Objects that cannot become Tamei
(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."
(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. A Rishon and Sheni l'Tum'ah are referred to as Velad ha'Tum'ah (the "offspring" of Tum'ah). (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)
(d)A Sheni L'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)
(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul" since it cannot transfer Tum'ah but it may not be eaten.
6)[line 41]יחזרו ויטמאו את הכוסYACHZERU V'YETAM'U ES HA'KOS- That is, he will make the back of the cup Tamei (see Rashi)
7)[line 46]אחוריוACHORAV (TUM'AS ACHOREI KELIM)
(a)In general, the various levels of Tum'ah are called, respectively: 1. Av ha'Tum'ah, 2. Rishon l'Tum'ah, 3. Sheni and 4. Shelishi. The latter two (Sheni and Shelishi) are called "Velad ha'Tum'ah."
(b)The only liquids that are an Av ha'Tum'ah are the Zov (see Background to Berachos 21:11), saliva and urine of a Zav, the blood, saliva and urine of a Nidah or Zavah (see Background to Nidah 71:34), and the semen of any person. These liquids are Metamei utensils and even people.
(c)The Chachamim decreed that all other liquids become Temei'im at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah when touched by a Rishon and Sheni l'Tum'ah. They decreed further that these liquids are Metamei utensils to become a Velad ha'Tum'ah (Shabbos 14b, and TOSFOS DH Ela b'Mashkin), since the abovementioned liquids are Metamei utensils mid'Oraisa.
(d)In order to remember that the Tum'ah of ordinary liquids is only mid'Rabanan, the Chachamim stipulated that if the liquids only touched the outside of a wooden or metal utensil, only the outside becomes Tamei, and not the inside. There is no Tum'ah mid'Oraisa with such a property. (If a liquid, or anything Tamei for that matter, touches the outside of an earthenware vessel, the vessel does not become Tamei at all — Rashi to Chagigah 22b; see Background to Nidah 60:10.)
8a)[line 1]אוגנוOGNO- its rim
b)[line 1]אזנוOZNO- its [rounded] handle
c)[line 1][ידיו] (ידיו)(YADAV) [YADO]- its [straight] handle
9)[line 4]ניצוצותNITZOTZOS- drops of liquid
10)[line 34]עיקר מדאורייתאIKAR MID'ORAISA- the basis of this Halachah is a law which is from the Torah
11)[line 38]פירוריןPEIRURIN- crumbs
12)[line 54]לא שבתLO SHAVAS- it did not rest (i.e., forbidden work was done with it on Shabbos)
13)[line 55]מסבתMESIBAS- banquet