[41a - 50 lines; 41b - 34 lines]
1)[line 8]דברי הכל מברך על זהDIVREI HA'KOL, MEVARECH AL ZEH...- (According to RASHI, this means that they may be recited in any order - see Insights to Berachos 41:1 and Charts to Berachos #4 (Daf 41a))
2)[line 40]לשיעורין נאמרL'SHI'URIN NE'EMAR- the verse was stated to praise Eretz Yisrael in that its fruits are used for Torah measurements
3a)[line 41]בית המנוגעBAYIS HA'MENUGA (METZORA: BI'AH L'BAYIS HA'MENUGA)
(a)When a person is a Metzora (see Background to Nidah 50:3), he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in (or a tree under which he walks). Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga (see next entry) is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.
(b)Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two verses:
1."veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev." (Vayikra 14:46)
2."veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav." (ibid. 14:47)
(c)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.
(d)The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:
1.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.
2.In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.
3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.
4.In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS to Yevamos 103b, DH Keivan, maintains that the people in the house do become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)
b)[line 41]בית המנוגעBAYIS HA'MENUGA (NIG'EI BATIM)
(a)The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei.
(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(c)On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states (Vayikra 14:44) "u'Va Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(d)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezerah Shavah. Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week - unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine - so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
(e)If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)
4a)[line 42]טבעותיו בידיוV'TAB'OSAV B'YADAV- his rings are in [the palms of] his hands (he is carrying them)
b)[line 43]טבעותיו באצבעותיוTAB'OSAV B'ETZBE'OSAV- his rings are on his fingers (he is wearing them)
5)[line 47]עצם כשעורהETZEM K'SE'ORAH (TUM'AS MES: ETZEM KI'SE'ORAH)
(a)A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah - see Background to Nidah 52:32) sprinkled on him.
(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes prevents the spread of Tum'ah only if the partition reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
(c)The Atzamos (bones) of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d)A Mes that is in a house is Metamei (with Tum'as Ohel) all people, utensils and food that are in the house. Maga and Masa of a Mes can be Metamei people, utensils and food with Tum'as Mes.
6)[line 49]רביעית ייןREVI'IS YAYIN- that is, the amount of grape leaves, stems, peels or pits that will displace a Revi'is of wine, not water. TOSFOS DH Gefen explains that wine is more viscous than water, and as a result, the Nazir can eat more of these grape products before he is liable to punishment. This is also the intent of RASHI DH Kedei.
(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b)If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to Nidah 52:32) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)
(c)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into twenty loaves of Matzah, ten Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and ten Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). After the Zero'a is cooked, a Kohen takes it along with one Chalah and one Rakik, and performs Tenufah (waving) on them with the Nazir (Bamidbar 6:19). The Kohen receives these items as his portion. He may share it with his family and they eat them in the city of Yerushalayim, for the day that the Korban is offered and the following night.
8)[line 49]הוצאת שבתHOZA'AS SHABBOS (HOTZA'AH: SHI'URO)
(a)HOTZA'AH - Hotza'ah is the general term for the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either: 1. Hotza'ah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain); 2. Hachnasah, transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid; 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos; 4. Moshit, passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 96:3). These are all biblical prohibitions.
(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. The sinner must perform both an Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (setting down the object to rest). If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a Rabbinic prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.
(c)The amount of produce transferred that will create a Chiyuv depends on the purpose for which the produce is transferred. If it is transferred for eating, the person is Chayav when he transfers a Grogeres of foods and a Revi'is of liquids (Mishnah Shabbos 76b). (A Grogeres is a measure of volume the size of a dried fig. The Rishonim differ in its relationship to a k'Beitzah, the Halachic volume of a chicken egg. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 8:5) rules that it is equal to one third of a Beitzah; the TUR (Orach Chayim 409) rules that it is equal to four ninths of a Beitzah; the TOSFOS (to Eruvin 80b and to Yoma 80a) rules that it is bigger than one half of a Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.) Transferring for other purposes, such as for animal fodder or for kindling wood requires the amount that will be useful in each circumstance (Shabbos ibid. et seq.).
9)[last line]כלי בעלי בתיםKLEI BA'ALEI BATIM
Since homeowners try to make the most out of their utensils, a bowl that cracks is still useful (and therefore is still Mekabel Tum'ah) until the hole becomes so large that pomegranates may fall through. At that point the utensil will no longer be Mekabel Tum'ah.
10)[line 5]ככותבת הגסה ביום הכפוריםK'KOSEVES HA'GASAH B'YOM HA'KIPURIM
The amount of solid food for which a person is liable for eating on Yom ha'Kipurim is the size of a fat date. The size of a Koseves is estimated at slightly less than a Beitzah (Yoma 79b; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah 15:8-10 by Chaim P. Beinish, Keser Torah Radomsk, Bnei Brak, 5760).
11a)[line 13]מאן יהיב לן נגרי דפרזלאMAN YAHIV LAN NAGAREI D'FARZELA- lit. who will give us legs of iron; i.e., if we only had legs of iron
b)[line 14]ונשמעינךV'NASHME'INACH- ... and we would [unflaggingly run after you and] learn from you
12)[line 21]פת הבאה בכסניןPAS HA'BA'AH B'KISNIN- (O.F. obledes) wafers/cakes that are eaten along with roasted grains after a meal (RASHI; see Insights to Berachos 41:2)