BERACHOS 41 - Dedicated by Rav Shalom Kelman in honor of Hagaon Rav Yehudah Copperman, author of the annotated edition of the Meshech Chochmah, and most recently "Mavo l'Limud Torah."


(a)According to Ula, the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabbanan in our Mishnah (whether one recites a Berachah over the seven kinds, or over whichever one prefers), is confined to two foods with the same Berachah. What will be the Din by two foods with different Berachos?

(b)Then how will Ula explain the Beraisa which says that the Berachah over a radish exempts one from reciting a Berachah over an olive?

(c)Others learn the Machlokes even when the two Berachos are different. What is then the basis of the Machlokes?

(d)According to Rebbi Chanan, the entire Pasuk (of "Eretz Chitah u'Se'orah" etc.) comes to teach us the various Shiurim: How do we interpret ...

1. ... "Eretz Chitah" (regarding someone who enters a house which is stricken with Tzara'as)?

2. ... "Se'orah" (regarding the Din of a bone of a corpse)?

3. ... "Gefen" (regarding a Nazir)?

4. ... "Te'einah" (regarding carrying on Shabbos)?

5. ... "Rimon" (regarding Tum'as Keilim)?

6. ... "Eretz Zeis-Shemen" (regarding most things). Which things?

7. ... "u'Devash" (regarding Yom Kipur)?


(a)When the two foods have different Berachos, one recites first the one Berachah and then the other.

(b)The Beraisa, which rules that the Berachah over the radish covers the olive (despite the fact that they require two different Berachos), speaks when the radish was the Ikar - i.e. when he intended to eat only the radish, and deciding to eat the olive too, in order to dispel the strong taste of the radish.

(c)In a case when the two foods require different Berachos, they argue over which Berachah comes first - Rebbi Yehudah holds that one first recites the Berachah over the olive (since it is one of the seven species with which Eretz Yisrael is praised), whilst according to the Rabbanan, he recites first whichever he prefers.

(d)According to Rebbi Chanan, the entire Pasuk (of "Eretz Chitah u'Se'orah" etc.) comes to teach us the various Shiurim: We interpret ...

1. ... "Eretz Chitah" - with regard to someone who enters a house which is stricken with Tzara'as holding clothes or rings in his hands, he and the clothes become Tamei immediately. Not so the clothes and the ornaments that he is wearing: they only become Tamei if he waits in the house the amount of time it would take to eat an Achilas Peras (four egg-volumes) of wheat-bread (with condiments, whilst he is reclining - each of these details diminishes the time of eating, and we probably take our cue from the Halachah, which comes to be lenient [i.e. because one eats wheat-bread quicker than *barley-bread]).

2. ... "Se'orah" - that a bone from a corpse is Metamei through touching or carrying (though not through Tum'as Ohel) - if it is the size of a barley.

3. ... "Gefen" - that the Shiur of the pits and the skin of grapes that a Nazir needs to eat in order to be Chayav (Malkus) - is a Revi'is (of a Lug = one and a half egg-volumes) of wine (which is thicker and therefore has more surface tension, than water - giving it a slightly larger Shiur).

4. ... "Te'einah" - that the Shiur for carrying on Shabbos as regards food - is that of a 'ki'Gerogeres' (a dried fig).

5. ... "Rimon"- as regards the Shiur Tum'ah of wooden vessels: Once a wooden vessels breaks to the extent that people will no longer use it, it loses its capacity to receive Tum'ah. Vessels with holes up to the size of a pomegranate, people still tend to use; consequently, they will still receive Tum'ah; but once it is the size of a pomegranate, the owner tends to throw it away, and it will not. (These Dinim are confined to the vessels of private people, not to vessels that are sold in stores, where the store-keeper tends to discard all broken vessels, however small the hole).

6. ... "Eretz Zeis-Shemen" - to teach us that the Shiur Malkos for eating most things, such as Cheilev, blood, Nosar and Pigul, is a k'Zayis.

7. ... "u'Devash" - to teach us that the Shiur for which one is Chayav Kares on Yom Kipur is that of a Koseves (a large date).



(a)What do Rav Yosef or Rav Yitzchak (who require the Pasuk to list the order of priorities) do with the above Din of Rebbi Chanan? From where do they know the Shiurim?

(b)Where are dates mentioned among the seven kinds?


(a)According to the opinion that we need the Pasuk to list the order of priorities, the Shiurim are 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai', and the Pasuk, as we just explained it, is only an Asmachta.

(b)"De'vash", the last of the seven kinds, refers not to bees' honey, but to that of dates.


(a)They brought Rav Hamnuna a bowl of dates and pomegranates. Although he intended to partake of both kinds, Rav Hamnuna recited a Berachah over the dates and not the pomegranates. What bothered Rav Chisda?

(b)And what did Rav Hamnuna answer him?

(c)What did Rav Chisda mean when he exclaimed 'Ma'an Yahiv Lan Nagri de'Parzela, ve'Nashme'inach'?


(a)Rav Chisda was concerned that Rav Hamnuna recited the Berachah over the dates, which are the last mentioned in the Pasuk, and not over the pomegranates, which are mentioned earlier.

(b)Rav Hamnuna replied that, although pomegranates are mentioned before dates in the Pasuk, they are mentioned only fifth after the first "Eretz", whereas dates are the first to be mentioned after the second "Eretz".

(c)'Ma'an Yahiv Lan Nagri de'Parzela, ve'Nashme'inach', was Rav Chisda's way of saying that he wished that he could follow Rav Hamnuna wherever he went.


(a)Tosfos says that we do not rule like the minority opinion of Rav Sheishes, who says that fruit in the middle of the meal requires both a Berachah Rishonah and a Berachah Acharonah, but rather like Rav Huna and Rav Nachman. What do they say?

(b)Rav Sheishes maintains that the only thing that requires a Berachah before and not afterwards is 'Pas ha'Ba'ah be'Kisnin'. What is 'Pas ha'Ba'ah be'Kisnin', and what does Rav Sheishes mean?

(c)What does Rebbi Chiya say about bread and wine?


(a)According to Rav Huna and Rav Nachman, fruit that is brought in the middle of the meal requires a Berachah before eating but not after.

(b)'Pas ha'Ba'ah be'Kisnin' is bread kneaded with spice, nuts and almonds, which they would bring, together with roasted grains - after Bensching (according to Rashi - See Tosfos DH 'Ela'). That is the only thing over which one recites 'Mezonos' before eating it, but not 'Al ha'Michyah' afterwards. (It is unclear what this has to do with our Sugya, which is talking, not about not reciting a Berachah afterwards because of its 'Chashivus', but because it is covered by Bensching. - See Tosfos quoted earlier).

(c)Rebbi Chiya says that the Berachah over bread covers all food, and the Berachah over wine, all drinks.


(a)What is meant by something which comes because of the meal?

(b)What does Rav Papa hold regarding both the Berachah Rishonah and the Berachah Acharonah, when it comes during the meal?

(c)Rav Papa lists two other categories of food. What will be the Din regarding both Berachah Rishonah and Berachah Acharonah, by food that is brought ...

1. ... during the meal, but not because of the it.

2. ... because of the meal, but after it.

(d)They asked Ben Zoma why it is that if bread exempts all foods that come during the meal because of the meal, from a Berachah, then why does it not exempt wine. What did he answer?


(a)'Something which comes because of the meal' refers to a food which is usually eaten together with bread.

(b)According to Rav Papa, food that comes because of the meal during the meal, require no Berachah at all, neither before nor afterwards.

(c)Food which is usually brought ...

1. ... not because of the meal (i.e. which is usually not eaten together with bread- such as porridge, cabbage or spinach, which, in those days, were all considered to be not part of the meal), but during the meal, requires a Berachah before eating but not after.

2. ... after the meal (such as fruit - even if it is now brought during the meal), requires a Berachah both before and after eating (i.e. it is covered neither by 'Motzi' nor by 'Bensching').

(d)Ben Zoma explained that wine is different than other foods. It is not covered by 'Motzi, like other foods are, because it is important enough to fix itself a Berachah (even when one is not thirsty) - e.g. Kidush, Havdalah, weddings etc.