[16a - 50 lines; 16b - 56 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 16a [line 36]:

The words "Korin Keri'as Shema... v'Ochlin Pitan... u'Mispalelin Tefilah Shel Shemoneh Esrei" קורין קריאת שמע... ואוכלין פתן... ומתפללין תפלה של שמונה עשרה

should be "Korin Keri'as Shema... u'Mispalelin Tefilah Shel Shemoneh Esrei v'Ochlin Pitan" קורין קריאת שמע... ומתפללין תפילה של שמונה עשרה ואוכלין פתן

This is the way it appears in Dikdukei Sofrim #3, as in the previous Beraisa. It also appears from Rashi's words (DH Korin Es Shema) "v'Chen bi'Zeman Tefilah" וכן בזמן תפילה, that he was explaining this Girsa. (The comment of Rashi should conclude with the words "v'Chen b'Zman Tefilah, Mispalelin Tefilah Shel Shemoneh Esrei" וכן בזמן תפילה מתפללין תפילה של שמונה עשרה.)

[2] Gemara 16b [line 20]:

"Aninus Lailah d'Rabanan di'Chsiv" אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב

To a certain extent, it appears from Rashi DH Kasavar ד"ה קסבר, that his text had the Girsa of the Paris manuscript (cited by Dikdukei Sofrim #10):

"Mai Taima... ka'Savar (Aninus Lailah d'Rabanan) Aninus d'Oraisa b'Yom Havah di'Chsiv..." מאי טעמא... קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן אנינות דאורייתא ביום הוה דכתיב

[3] Gemara [line 52]:

"Chayim she'Yesh Bahem Yir'as Chet" חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא

This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim, and the way it appears in our texts as well (and not "Yir'as Shamayim v'Yir'as Chet" יראת שמים ויראת חטא, as is found in the prayer for Rosh Chodesh in our Sidurim, since Yir'as Shamayim יראת שמים will be mentioned separately later).

[4] Rashi 16b DH ume'Azus Panim ד"ה ומעזות פנים:

"she'Lo Yotzi'u Alai La'az Mamzerus" שלא יוציאו עלי לעז ממזרות (Source: Shabbos 30b)


1)[line 1]"כנחלים נטיו, כגנות עלי נהר; כאהלים נטע...""KI'NCHALIM NITAYU, K'GANOS ALEI NAHAR; KA'AHALIM NATA..."- "They stretch out like streams, like gardens by the river; they are like tents (alt. aloes, a type of fragrant spice — TOSFOS) which have been planted..." (Bamidbar 24:6).

2)[line 6]קטרין ליה גננא לרבי אלעזרKATRIN LEI GANENA L'REBBI ELAZAR- prepared the Chupah (wedding canopy) for Rebbi Elazar

3)[line 7]איזיל ואשמע מלתא דבי מדרשאEIZIL V'ESHMA MILSA D'BEI MIDRASHA- Rebbi Elazar said, "While you prepare my Chupah, I will go to the Beis ha'Midrash to hear a Devar Torah."

4)[line 15]סרכיה נקט ואתיSIRCHEI NAKAT V'ASI- (a) he said [Lema'an Yirbu...] according to his habit (and he need not repeat the second Parshah, since this proves that he was at the end of the second Parshah) (RASHBA, RITVA); (b) [when a person finds himself in the middle of "va'Yomer" and he remembers that he said "Lema'an Yirbu," but he does not remember whether he said the verses in between, he may assume that he did say those verses, since he probably recited them according to his habit. (If, however, he finds himself in the middle of the first or second Parshah and remembers saying a phrase from the beginning of the Parshah, he cannot assume that he recited the verses in between, since those two Parshiyos are not as familiar to a person as the Parshah of "va'Yomer"; rather, he must return to the verse that he remembers reciting.) (RASHI, according to the explanation of the RASHBA)

5)[line 17]האומניןHA'UMNIN- artisans

6)[line 18]הנדבךHA'NIDVACH- a row of stones (for constructing a building)

7)[line 37]אין יורדין לפני התיבהEIN YORDIN LIFNEI HA'TEIVAH- they do not stand before the Ark (to be the Chazan)

8)[line 37]אין נושאין כפיהםEIN NOS'IM KAPEIHEM (BIRKAS KOHANIM)

(a)The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton, the Holy Name of HaSh-m). According to TOSFOS (Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer), this applies only when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopped saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.

(b)It is called "Nesi'as Kapayim," which literally means "Elevating of the Hands," since the Kohanim recite the blessing with raised arms.

(c)The Gemara here teaches that if the workers are Kohanim, they may not say Birkas Kohanim, which is usually said during the Chazan's repetition of the Shemoneh Esreh. It seems that if they were given permission to pray in a synagogue, they must return to their work after they finish their silent Shemoneh Esreh.

9a)[line 40]עושין בשכרןOSIN BI'SCHARAN- they receive meals and payment for their work

b)[line 40]עושין בסעודתןOSIN BI'S'UDASAN- they receive only meals for their work


10)[line 7]"[האנק דם מתים אבל לא תעשה] פארך חבוש עליך [ונעליך תשים ברגליך ולא תעטה על שפם ולחם אנשים לא תאכל]""[HE'ANEK DOM, MESIM EIVEL LO SA'ASEH;] FE'ERCHA CHAVOSH ALECHA [U'NE'ALCHA TASIM B'RAGLECHA, V'LO SAITEH AL ROSHCHA V'LECHEM ANASHIM LO SOCHEL]" - "[Do not even sigh and do not mourn (for your deceased wife);] don your headgear (your Tefilin) [and place your shoes on your feet; do not cover your face down to your mustache and do not eat the bread that others send you (the first meal)]" (Yechezkel 24:17) (WHEN YECHEZKEL'S WIFE DIED)

See Background to Berachos 11:5.

11)[line 12]אסטניסISTENIS- an extremely fastidious, sensitive individual

12)[line 13]תנחומיןTANCHUMIN

(a)While a person mourns for a close relative, it is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan to comfort him by saying "ha'Makom Yenachem Eschem b'Soch She'ar Avelei Tziyon vi'Yerushalayim" - "HaSh-m will comfort you among the mourners of the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim," or "Tenuchamu Min ha'Shamayim" - "You will be comforted by HaSh-m." The mourners accept Tanchumin at the cemetery after the burial, and in the house of mourning for seven days afterwards (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:2; Shulchan Aruch YD 376).

(b)At the cemetery after the burial, the people who came to the funeral stand in rows (Shuros) of not less than ten people and comfort the mourners before they return to the city. At first, the mourners stood still to the left of the comforters, and they passed in front of the mourners one by one, to offer their condolences (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2). Because of an unfortunate event described by the Gemara (Sanhedrin 19a), the custom was changed so that the people who comforted the mourners stood in a line and the mourners passed by them. The Gemara (ibid.) concludes that nowadays, either system is appropriate.

13)[line 18]אנינות לילהANINUS LAILAH (ONEN)

(a)A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). The Gemara (Zevachim 101a) learns the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Since the verse states ha'Yom, Chazal learn that Aninus mid'Oraisa only applies to the day of death, and not to the night afterwards. A person remains an Onen mid'Rabanan if the burial is postponed from after the day of death.

(b)Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim, Bikurim or Ma'aser Sheni. Besides the prohibition against an Onen performing the Avodah and eating Kodshim mid'Oraisa, the Rabanan extended the prohibitions even after Aninus mid'Oraisa has passed. However, the Tana'im and Rishonim argue as to the nature of this Gezeirah. They also argue as to whether Aninus mid'Oraisa always applies for the entire day or for part of the day in certain cases. With regard to these questions, Aninus may be broken into five time periods, as follows:

1.The day of death, before burial - according to all opinions Aninus mid'Oraisa applies, as above.

2.The day of death, after burial - according to RASHI (to Pesachim 90b DH ha'Onen, Zevachim 15b DH Onen) only Aninus mid'Rabanan applies. According to the RAMBAN (Toras ha'Adam) Aninus mid'Oraisa still applies.

3.The night after the day of death (according to Rashi in #2, before burial; according to Ramban in #2, even after burial) - the Tana'im argue if the Aninus is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 99b). Most of the Rishonim rule that the Aninus is not mid'Oraisa but rather mid'Rabanan.

4.The days after the day of death, even if the body has not been buried - Aninus only applies mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 100b) until the end of the day of burial. Also on the day of "Likut Atzamos" (when the remains of one of the close relatives are exhumed and re-buried elsewhere), the Rabanan decreed that the person is an Onen for that entire day.

5.The night after the day of burial - the Tana'im (Zevachim 100b) argue whether the person is an Onen mid'Rabanan or not at all, and the Halachah follows the opinion that he is not an Onen at all.

(c)After the deceased is buried, the period of Aveilus begins. There are some laws of Aveilus that apply for seven days, some which apply for thirty days and others that apply for twelve months. 1. The laws that apply for seven days are refraining from bathing and washing clothes. 2. The laws that apply for thirty days are refraining from taking a haircut and from ironing clothes. 3. The laws that apply for twelve months (after the death of a parent) are refraining from buying new clothes and from attending weddings and other Semachos.

14)[line 19]"... ואחריתה כיום מר""… V'ACHARISAH K'YOM MAR"- "[And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it like the mourning for an only son,] and its end like a bitter day" (Amos 8:10) - This prophecy reveals the punishment of a nation of sinners, comparing it to the day of death of an only son.

15)[line 22]שורהSHURAH

(a)See above, entry #12.

(b)Our Gemara states that the laws of Shurah, Birkas Aveilim (see Background to Kesuvos 8:21), and Tanchumei Aveilim do not apply when a person's Nochri slave dies.

16a)[line 25]אנפילוןANPILON- a gate-way, a small room before the dining room

b)[line 25]טרקליןTERAKLIN- the dining room, reception room

17)[line 26]אתם נכוים בפושריםATEM NICHVIM B'FOSHRIM- you would be burned with warm water, i.e. understand with a mere a hint

18)[line 31]מספידיןMASPIDIN- eulogize

19)[line 33]אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשהEIN KORIN AVOS ELA L'SHELOSHAH- We give the title "Father [of Israel]" only to three of our ancestors (RASHI)

20)[line 38]מעשה לסתור?MA'ASEH LISTOR?- Is a case in point brought as a contradiction?

21)[line 39]מאי דכתיב "כן אברכך בחיי"?MAI DI'CHSIV "KEN AVARECHECHA V'CHAYAI"?- It is not clear why the Gemara quotes this here. Most probably, it was quoted in connection with the end of our Mishnah, which describes a person who reads Shema even when he is exempt from the Mitzvah. Of such a person it was said, "Ken Avarechecha v'Chayai," and he merits two worlds.... (M. KORNFELD)

22)[line 41]"כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי""KMO CHELEV VA'DESHEN TISBA NAFSHI"- "My soul is satisfied as [the physical body is] with the choicest and fattest parts" (Tehilim 63:6).

23)[line 43]רבי אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר...REBBI ELAZAR, BASAR D'MESAYEM TZELOSEI, AMAR...- Rebbi Elazar, after he finished his Shemoneh Esreh prayer, said.... According to the Tzelach, this is quoted here because Rebbi Elazar taught something about the importance of Tefilah in the previous line. (It could be that even the previous line was referring to personal Tefilos, such as that of Rebbi Elazar and the others quoted here. -M. KORNFELD)

24)[line 44]פורינוPUREINU- our lot

25)[line 45]תקננוTAKNENU- and arrange for us

26)[line 45]יחולYICHUL- hope

27)[line 46]קורת נפשנוKORAS NAFSHEINU- the satisfaction of our soul; contentment

28)[line 47]שתציץ בבשתנוSHE'TATZITZ B'VOSHTEINU- that You should peek at our shame

29)[line 47]תתכסה בעזךSISKASEH V'UZECHA- You shall clothe Yourself with your strength

30)[line 48]ענותנותךANVESANUSECHA- Your humility

31)[line 50]ידוהYIDVEH- grieve

32)[line 52]חלוץ עצמותCHILUTZ ATZAMOS- strengthening of our bones (muscles)

33)[line 54]פגע רעPEGA RA- a bad occurrence

34)[last line]אף על גב דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרביAF AL GAV D'KAIMEI KETZUTZEI ALEI D'REBBI- even though Rebbi was protected by guards (appointed by the government)