INSULATING A HEATED POT ON YOM TOV
Question: What is the case of the Mishnah?
If an Eruv Tavshilin was made, why does Beis Shamai prohibit insulating a heated pot?
If an Eruv Tavshilin was not made, why does Beis Hillel permit it?
Answer (R. Huna): An Eruv Tavshilin was not made, but the Rabanan permitted cooking the bare minimum (R Huna is consistent with his position elsewhere).
(R. Huna): One who did not make an Eruv may bake one loaf, cook one dish, and kindle a single flame.
(R. Yitzchak): One may even roast a small fish.
A Beraisa reflects both opinions.
Answer (Rava): An Eruv Tavshilin was made, but Hatmanah is nevertheless prohibited since it is obviously being done for Shabbos (and thus is not covered by the Eruv).
Question (Abaye): But Chananiah teaches that one who made an Eruv Tavshilin with Hatmanah may be Matmin on Yom Tov for Shabbos (even though it is obviously for Shabbos)!?
Answer (Abaye): Our Mishnah is rather speaking where he made an Eruv with Bishul or Afiah but not Hatmanah (and our Mishnah follows the view of Chananiah and Beis Shamai regarding the requirement that the Eruv be specific).
THE PROHIBITION OF STANDING UP THE (FALLEN) MENORAH
Question: What Isur is involved?
Answer (R. Chinena b. Bisna): We are speaking of a Menorah whose couplings came apart when it fell, and the assembly looks like Boneh.
Beis Shamai prohibits this assembly since they hold that Boneh applies to Kelim.
Beis Hillel permits this assembly since Boneh only applies to Karka, not to Kelim.
MAV'IR AND MECHABEH
Ula's servant tipped a candle, distancing the oil from the wick, which would extinguish the candle.
Question (R. Yehudah): But the Beraisa teaches that one who adds oil is Chayav for Mav'ir and one who removes oil is Chayav for Mechabeh!?
Answer (Ula): I was unaware of my servant's activity.
(Rav): It is permitted to remove the charcoal on the end of the wick on Yom Tov (Kanva).
Question (Aba Marta): Is one permitted to extinguish a flame on Yom Tov to provide the darkness required for conjugal relations?
Answer (Abaye): It is not a Tzorech ha'Yom since he may use another home.
Question: And what if no other home is available?
Answer: He may construct a Mechitzah.
Question: What if a Mechitzah is not possible?
Answer: He may cover the flame with a Kli.
Question: What if no Kli is available?
Answer: Mechabeh is forbidden even if it is Tzorech ha'Yom.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that Tzorech ha'Yom does permit Kibuy (extinguishing the flame so that there is less smoke)!?
Answer (Abaye): That Beraisa is the view of R. Yehudah, who permits Melachos l'Tzorech ha'Yom, while I was speaking in the view of Rabanan (which is l'Halachah) who only permit Melachos for Ochel Nefesh.
Question (Abaye, before he learned from Rabah that Melachos which are not for Ochel Nefesh are not permitted): Is it permitted to put out a fire on Yom Tov?
When the situation is life-threatening there is no question that Kibuy is permitted.
The question relates to a situation of monetary loss.
Answer (Rabah): It is forbidden.
Question (Abaye): But the Beraisa that for a great need one is permitted to be Mechabeh!?
Answer: That Beraisa is the view of R. Yehudah...
MEDICINAL PAINTING OF THE EYE ON YOM TOV
Question (R. Ashi): Is it permitted to apply the medicinal paint around one's eye on Yom Tov?
We assume that none of the dangerous conditions listed are present and the condition is abating.
One wishes the treatment in order to fully open his eye.
Answer (Ameimar): It is prohibited.
Question: But the Beraisa...?
Answer: That Beraisa is R. Yehudah...
Ameimar permits applying the paint by a non-Jew on Shabbos when there is no danger (alternately, he had his own eye painted by a non-Jew on Shabbos).
Question (R. Ashi): The bases for permitting such an act are premised on the Jew not assisting the non-Jew in the procedure, whereas you are helping it along by opening and shutting your eye!?
Answer (Ameimar): Assisting (where the act could have been done by the principle person alone) is not significant (as I told R. Zevid who asked the same question).
Ameimar permitted the painting on the second day of Rosh Hashanah (when Melachah is prohibited d'Rabanan, even by a Jew).
Question (R. Ashi): But Rava only taught a leniency on the second day of Rosh Hashanah when the honor of a deceased is at stake!?
Answer (Ameimar): I rule in accordance with those who include Beitzah among the leniencies.
Question: And why might you assume stringency?
Answer: Out of concern that Elul was truly 30 days and the "true" Rosh Hashanah is on the second day!
But R. Chinena b. Kehana taught that since the days of Ezra, Elul never had 30 days.
BAKING WITH A THICK OR THIN DOUGH
(Beis Shamai): We may not bake a Pas Avah on Pesach (presumably, out of concern for Chimutz).
(Beis Hillel): It is permitted.
Question: How thick is Pas Avah?
Answer (R. Huna): A Tefach (as the Lechem ha'Panim were a Tefach thick and was still considered Matzah, not Chametz).
Question (R. Yosef): But here are five reasons (listed) why the Lechem ha'Panim could be permitted while being a Tefach thick which would not apply to any other case!?
(R. Yirmeyah b. Aba citing his Rebbi [Rav] or it was Rav citing Rebbi): The Pas Avah which Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai argue over is a large quantity at once.
Question: Why is a large quantity called "thick?"
Answer: Because it is "thick" when kneaded.
Alternate Answer: That is how they referred to a large quantity of bread in the place of that Tana.
Question: If the issue involved is the excessive effort on Yom Tov, then why does the Tana speak of Pas Avah on Pesach (as opposed to any other Yom Tov)?
Answer: It only happens that this Tana was speaking about the Halachos of Pesach (as the Beraisa affirms that the Machlokes of Pas Avah applies on any Yom Tov).
MISHNAH: R. GAMLIEL'S LENIENCIES
One may sweep the dining room (without concern for leveling the crevices in the floor).
One may place incense to be burned on the coals (even though it is not for Ochel Nefesh).
One may roast the Gedi whole on Pesach night (without concern that it may look like the Korban Pesach).
Chachamim prohibit each of the above.
(R. Asi): They only argue about incense for perfuming a garment, not for bringing fragrance into a room.
Question: But from the Beraisa (based on the first cases of the Mishnah) we see (from the challenge of Chachamim to R. Eliezer b. Tzadok) that R. Gamliel permits Kibud and Gimur on Yom Tov and Chachamim prohibit it (not like R. Asi's assertion)!?
Answer: We must learn the comment of R. Asi as teaching that they only argue about Gimur for aroma but agree that perfuming a garment is prohibited.
Question: May one place Levonah on coals to smoke fruit?
Answer (R. Yirmeyah b. Aba citing Rav): It is prohibited (the act extinguishes the coals for a cause which is not Shaveh l'chol Nefesh).
Answer (Shmuel) It is permitted (the smoking is Shaveh l'chol Nefesh but for the fact that many cannot afford the Levonah to do so).
(R. Huna, explaining Rav): It is prohibited due to Mechabeh.
Question (R. Nachman): Why not point to the Mav'ir of the Levonah?
Answer: Mechabeh happens first.
(R. Yehudah): The problems only begin when using coals, but placing Levonah on a hot vessel is permitted.
(Rabah): That, too, is prohibited due to Molid.