[18a - 39 lines; 18b - 32 lines]

1)[line 11]מדליןMEDALIN- it is permitted to draw water

2)[line 19]באב הטומאהAV HA'TUMAH (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).

3)[line 20]בולד הטומאהVELAD HA'TUMAH (TUM'AH: AL YEDEI MASHKIN)

(a)In general, the various levels of Tum'ah are called, respectively: 1. Av ha'Tum'ah, 2. Rishon l'Tum'ah, 3. Sheni and 4. Shelishi. The latter two (Sheni and Shelishi) are called "Vlad ha'Tum'ah."

(b)Normally, utensils can only become an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah, but they cannot become a Vlad ha'Tum'ah. However, the Chachamim decreed that liquids that are touched by a Rishon or Sheni can make utensils become Teme'im (Shabbos 14b, and Tosfos DH Ela b'Mashkin). A utensil that becomes Tamei mid'Rabanan in such a manner is called a Velad ha'Tum'ah.

(c)The reason for the decree of the Chachamim that liquids which acquire Tum'ah from a Rishon and Sheni l'Tum'ah are Metamei utensils, is that there are liquids which are Metamei utensils mid'Oraisa; namely the bodily liquids of a Zav or Zavah. The Zov, semen, saliva and urine of a Zav, and the blood, saliva and urine of a Zavah are all Avos ha'Tum'ah.

4)[line 25]מערמתMA'AREMES- she uses a form of deception [to accomplish something that is usually prohibited]

5)[line 26]לאטבולי בעינייהוL'ATBULEI B'EINEI- to immerse them in a Mikvah by themselves

6)[line 33]שמא ישהאSHEMA YASH'HE- lest he put off immersing them until Yom Tov, when he has more spare time, which could lead to using them for Terumah and the like while they are still Teme'im

7)[line 37]שנראה כמתקןNIR'EH K'MEIKAR- he appears to be cooling himself off


8)[line 1]בשרבSHERAV- a time of dry heat

9)[line 1]במי משרהMEI MISHRAH- water in which flax is soaked

10)[line 9]החושש בשיניוHA'CHOSHESH B'SHINAV- a person who has a toothache

11)[line 10]לא יגמע בהןLO YEGAME'A BAHEN- he may not sip [vinegar] through them

12)[line 10]מטבל הוא כדרכוMETABEL HU K'DARKO- he may dip [his bread or food] into vinegar as he normally does