1)

TOSFOS DH ha'Dolfanim Parin v'Rabin mi'Bnei Adam

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos affirms the text of Rashi and the Tosefta.)

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(a)

Remark: This is Rashi's text, and so it is proven in the Tosefta (1:5). They give birth and raise [children] from people.

2)

TOSFOS DH Eimar Yatzesah Rubah v'Chazrah

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos derives from here a Heter on second day Yom Tov.)

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(a)

Pesak: From here we permit to buy eggs from Nochrim on the second night of Yom Tov Sheni of Chutz la'Aretz (surely they came out during the day), except for the two days of Rosh Hashanah, for they are one Kedushah (and an egg laid on Yom Tov is forbidden on that day).

3)

TOSFOS DH Tarnegoles Chaf Alaf Yom Kenegdah b'Ilan Luz

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos gives three explanations.)

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(a)

Explanation #1 (Rashi): This is a hazel tree, on which small nuts grow.

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(b)

Explanation #2 (Riva): This is the tree on which almonds grow, called Amandlid (in old French). The Targum Yerushalmi of "Betenim u'Shekedim" is Luzim, and similarly the Targum of Makel Shaked is Chutra d'Luza.

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(c)

Citation (Midrash): "Makel Shaked Ani Ro'eh" - just like almonds, there are 21 days from Chanatah (budding) until the Peros are finished, there are 21 days from the 17th of Tamuz (on which the wall of Yerushalayim was breached) until [the Churban, on] Tish'ah b'Av;

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1.

And in the Targum of Koheles "va'Yin'atz ha'Shaked" is translated "va'Satzitz Reish Shakdusa b'Vachshusa Min Shagdiya", and the Targum of "va'Yigamel Shekedim" is "v'Chapis Shegedin."

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2.

Further, they said in the Midrash "va'Yin'atz ha'Shaked" - this is Luz of the spine, and it is explicit in the Midrash regarding "va'Yin'atz ha'Shaked" that from it the future the dead will be revived from it. It is Klivoses [mentioned] in Shabbos (152a), but in the Midrash it is called Luz due to Shaked.

4)

TOSFOS DH b'Ilan Tut

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses when the Brachah is Borei Peri ha'Etz.)

(a)

Implied suggestion: This proves that one blesses Borei Peri ha'Etz on them. .

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(b)

Rejection: We say also "the Ilan on which grain grows" (and we never bless on grain Borei Peri ha'Etz).

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1.

And even though Rashi explained like the opinion that the tree from which Adam ha'Rishon ate was wheat, this shows that grain is called a kind of tree, in any case regarding Brachah we do not find anywhere that one who eats wheat blesses [Borei] Peri ha'Etz!

(c)

Distinction: However, Tut that grow on a tree, one blesses Borei Peri ha'Etz, but not on Tut Sadeh (strawberries), for if you take the fruit, the branch will not produce more. One blesses Borei Peri ha'Etz only when the branch returns to produce more.

5)

TOSFOS DH Bardelas

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses what this is.)

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(a)

Explanation #1 (Rashi): This is Afa.

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(b)

Explanation #2 (Rashi in Sanhedrin 15b): It is Putush (a polecat).

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(c)

Support (for Explanation #1): In Bava Kama (16a) we say that Bardelas is Afa, and we say that Tzavu'a is Af'ah, for the Targum of Gei ha'Tzevu'im is Mishor Af'aya. (Tosfos holds that Afa and Af'ah are the same, for he showed that Tzavu'a is Af'ah, and it says in Bava Kama 16a that Tzavu'a is Afa. Tosfos explicitly said so in Sanhedrin 15b.)

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(d)

Retraction (of support): Here, Bardelas connotes that it is like Putush, and it gives birth after three years, since it changed (after initially teaching Bardelas, it teaches that) Af'ah give birth after 70 years. (If it is Af'ah, why did it use two different names?! Rather, there are two kinds of Bardelas.

6)

TOSFOS DH ha'Kuf veha'Kifuf

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that there is a Chayah and birds called Kifuf.)

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(a)

Explanation: [Kifuf] is a kind of Chayah, since it was taught with an elephant.

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(b)

Support #1: It says in Brachos (57b) that all kinds of Chayos are good [if one sees them] in a dream, except for an elephant or Kifuf.

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(c)

Support #2: In Nidah (23a) we say that R. Meir said [that there is Tum'as Leidah for non-human forms] only for Karya and Kifufa, since their eyes face forward, like those of people. This is Kos and Yanshuf; the Targum of them is Karya and Kifufa.

( .)

(d)

Observation: There is another Kifuf that is a kind of bird. In Chulin (63a, a Beraisa) says that Tinshames is the ugliest of the birds, and [Abaye] says that the ugliest of the birds is Kifuf.

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(e)

Disclaimer: Some texts [there] say Kipod with a Dalet, like "vi'Yreshuha Ka'as v'Kipod."

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(f)

Question: If the text is Kifuf, and there are two kinds of birds called Kifuf, if so, when [Abaye] explains that the ugliest of the birds is Kifuf, how do we know that if this is Yanshuf or Tinshames? (Do not say that he relies on the Beraisa, and merely teaches that Tinshames is Kifuf. If so, why did he mention "the ugliest...."?)

7)

TOSFOS DH Benos Shu'ach

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos distinguish different species of figs.)

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(a)

Reference: Regarding the Mishnah "Shevi'is of Benos Shu'ach is the second year", the Yerushalmi explains that every year fruits have Chanatah (budding) on the tree, and fruits that burned in one year are not finished until the third year. (Therefore, Benos Shu'ach that finished two years into the Shemitah cycle, they budded in Shemitah.)

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1.

This is unlike R. Chananel, who explained 30 trees, and each year only 10 of them produce [Peros], e.g. Benos Shu'ach in three years.

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(b)

Citation: In Avodah Zarah 14a, the text says [that they added to species to which Shemitah applies] "Muchsasim Benos Shu'ach." It is one species. This is its name. (Yad Binyamin says that our text of Tosfos is errant. Shitah Mekubetzes (Mahaduras Rav Ilan) brings that Tosfos' text was Muchsasim u'Benos Shu'ach; the prefix Vav shows that they are two species. He brings the text without a Vov in the name of Rashi and R. Tam. Tosfos brings below a source that Benos Shu'ach are not esteemed, and a source that they are esteemed. According to R. Tam, we can say that Stam Benos Shu'ach are esteemed, but the subspecies Muchsasim is not.)

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(c)

Question: In Demai (1:1), a Mishnah teaches "the leniencies of Demai - Amei ha'Aretz are not suspected about them." This connotes that they are not important Peros;

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1.

And in Avodah Zarah (14a), it explains white figs, and in Nedarim (27a) it connotes that Benos Sheva and white figs are two species, for it says "had I known that Benos Sheva are in the basket, I would have said 'white and black figs are forbidden, and Benos Sheva are permitted'"! (I.e. people desire them.)

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(d)

Answer: Benos Shu'ach and [Benos] Sheva are kinds of figs, but Benos Shu'ach are bad, like the Mishnah "the leniencies of Demai" connotes, and the [teaching about] Shevi'is shows that [initially, Chachamim] held that Shemitah does not apply to them;

) '') [" . - ] ( .)

1.

Benos Sheva are good, like it connotes in Shavu'os (12a) and Nedarim (27a) (it says that Adam ha'Rishon ate from them), and presumably, he ate from the good ones;

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2.

They are called Sheva due to the seven days of Aveilus that they caused. The bad ones are called Bnos Shu'ach because they caused Shuchah (a pitfall). We attribute the ruin to what is ruined.

8)

TOSFOS DH u'Mai Ninhu Chamor mi'Chatul

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why we do not learn from a dog.)

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(a)

Explanation: A cat's [gestation] is 52 days.

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(b)

Question: According to the opinion that a dog is a kind of Chayah, like it says in Beitzah (25b) "there are three brazen [animals] - a dog among Chayos...", it should mention a donkey, [and then the snake will be] even more ruined, for a dog's[gestation] is only 50 days!

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(c)

Answer: This calculation [based on a cat] works out to be [an even number of] years.

8b----------------------------------------8b

9)

TOSFOS DH Echad l'Shalosh u'Mai Ninhu Ez mi'Chatul

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(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why we did not use the ratio of a goat to a dog.)

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(a)

Implied question: Here it would be better to say a goat [is three times more cursed ]than a dog, according to the opinion that [a dog] it is a kind of Chayah, for the calculation would be more precise (a dog is 50 days, and a goat is five months, i.e. 150 days)!

:

(b)

Answer: He prefers to ask according to everyone (i.e. even if a dog is a Behemah).

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