AVODAH ZARAH 74 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas the grandmother of Mr. David Kornfeld, Chayah bas Aryeh Leib Shpira (nee Sole) z'l, in honor of the day of her Yahrzeit.

1)

ITEMS THAT ANY AMOUNT OF THEM PROHIBIT (Yerushalmi Halachah 12 Daf 36a)

משנה אילו אסורין ואוסרין כל שהן יין נסך וע"ז ועורות לבובין ושור הנסקל ועגלה ערופה וציפרי מצורע ושיער נזיר ופטר חמור ובשר בחלב וחולין שנשחטו בעזרה הרי אילו אסורין ואוסרין בכל שהן:

(a)

(Mishnah): These are prohibited and any amount of them prohibit a mixture - Yayin Nesech, idols, Oros Levuvin (animal skins that are pierced at the heart), an ox that must be stoned (as it killed a person), a heifer whose neck will be broken, the bird offerings of a Metzorah, the hair of a Nazir, the firstborn donkey, meat cooked in milk, Chulin animals that were slaughtered in the Temple Courtyard.

גמרא יין נסך וע"ז ועורות לבובין על שם ולא ידבק בידך מאומה מן החרם.

(b)

(Gemara): Yayin Nesech, idols and Oros Levuvin are learned from the pasuk (Devarim 13:18), "And nothing that is doomed to destruction shall cling to your hand".

ושור הנסקל ממשמע שנאמר יסקל השור אינו יודע שלא יאכל מה ת"ל לא יאכל מיכן שאסור אף בהנייה

(c)

An ox that must be stoned - from the pasuk stating (Shemos 21:28), "the bull shall (surely) be stoned", do I not know that it may not be eaten (as it isn't slaughtered). Why must the pasuk then say "it shall not be eaten"? To teach that one may not gain benefit from it at all.

עגלה ערופה שם שם מה שם האמור להלן אסור בהנייה אף שם האמור כאן אסור בהנייה.

(d)

A heifer whose neck will be broken - it is learned through a Gezeirah Shavah using the word "there", which appears here (Devarim 21:4) and in the pasuk about the death of Miriam (Bamidbar 20:11). Just as it is prohibited to gain benefit from a dead body, so too from the heifer.

וציפרי מצורע כל צפור טהורה תאכלו זו החיה וזה אשר לא תאכלו מהם זה השחיטה

(e)

The bird offerings of a Metzorah - from the pasuk that states (Devarim 14:11), "You may eat any Tahor bird" - this refers to a live bird that is sent away by a Metzorah (that it is permitted); "and this that you may not eat of them" - the word "ASHER - that" comes to also include a slaughtered Metzorah bird, to teach that it may not be eaten.

או חילוף

(f)

Question: Or perhaps, the opposite inclusion and exclusion should be made?

רבי יוחנן בשם ר' ישמעאל לא התפישה התורה איסור הנייה דבר שיש בו רוח חיים.

(g)

Answer (R. Yochanan citing R. Yishmael): The Torah only applied a prohibition to gain benefit when the item is alive.

ושיער נזיר ונתן על האש אשר תחת זבח השלמים.

(h)

The hair of a Nazir - the pasuk states (Bamidbar 6:18), "and place it upon the fire which is under the peace offering". From the fact that the Torah required the burning of the hair, gaining benefit from it must be prohibited.

ופטר חמור עריפה עריפה מה להלן קוברו ואסור בהנייה אף כאן קוברו ואסור בהנייה.

(i)

The firstborn donkey - it is learned through a Gezeirah Shavah using the word "breaking the neck" from the case the heifer whose neck will be broken. Just as there, it must be buried and gaining benefit is prohibited; so too the firstborn donkey must be buried and gaining benefit is prohibited.

ובשר בחלב תני בשלשה מקומות כתיב לא תבשל גדי לאכילה ולהנייה ולבישול.

(j)

Meat cooked in milk - as the Baraisa teaches - in three places the Torah writes "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Shemos 23:19, Shemos 34:26, Devarim 14:21) - to teach that it is prohibited to eat, to gain benefit from and to cook meat and milk.

ולחולין שנשחטו בעזרה רבי יוחנן בשם רבי ישמעאל אמרה תורה שחוט שלי בשלי ושלך בשלך מה שלי בשלך אסור אף שלך בשלי

(k)

Chulin (non-consecrated) animals that were slaughtered in the Temple Courtyard - R. Yochanan citing R. Yishmael said - the Torah said, "Slaughter what is mine (sacrifices) in what is mine (the Beis HaMikdash) and what is yours (Chulin animals) in what is yours (in Eretz Yisrael, outside the Beis HaMikdash)". Just as what is mine (sacrifices) in what is yours (outside the Beis HaMikdash), gaining benefit is prohibited, so too, what is yours (Chulin) in what is mine (the Beis HaMikdash), gaining benefit is prohibited.

ענוש כרת. ולאו רבי ישמעאל אמר למידין מקל וחומר ואין עונשין מקל וחומר

(l)

Question: If Chulin animals being slaughtered in the Courtyard are learned from sacrifices being slaughtered outside, then there should also be a negative Mitzvah and Kares for slaughtering Chulin animals in the Courtyard. But isn't it R. Yishmael who learned the prohibition to derive benefit from Chulin slaughtered in the Courtyard from here?

ולמה לא תנינן נבילה עמהן

(m)

Question: Why wasn't Neveilah (eating from an animal that was not ritually slaughtered correctly) listed in the Mishnah (that if a piece became mixed even with 1000 kasher pieces, it is prohibited)?

אמר רבי יוסי בי רבי בון לא מתני אלא דבר שאסור בהנייה נבילה מותרת בהנייה

(n)

Answer (R. Yosi bei R. Bun): The Mishnah only lists items from which one may not gain benefit, but one may gain benefit from Neveilah.

התיבון הרי חמץ בפסח

(o)

Question: So why didn't the Mishnah teach about Chametz on Pesach?

חמץ יש בו כרת ואילו אין בהן כרת.

(p)

Answer: Eating Chametz incurs Kares; eating the items in the Mishnah does not incur Kares.

רבי יוסי בשם רבי חנינה בעי איסורי הנייה מהו שיבטלו (בצירוף)[בטירוף]

(q)

Question (R. Yosi citing Chaninah): Can items for which it is prohibited to gain benefit be annulled by grinding them up and mixing them together (since it is no longer significant)?

והתנינן שור הנסקל

(r)

Suggestion: The Mishnah taught the case of the ox that must be stoned, that any amount is prohibited (which is assumed to mean even if it is insignificant, it is not annulled).

תיפתר בחתיכות

(s)

Rejection: It is referring to when a piece of the flesh (which is significant) became mixed into other pieces.

והתנינן צפורי מצורע

(t)

Suggestion: The Mishnah taught the case of the bird offerings of the Metzorah (which is assumed to mean even if it is insignificant, it is not annulled).

תיפתר ציפור בציפורין

(u)

Rejection: It is referring to when the bird became mixed with other birds.

והתנינן שיער נזיר אית לך מימר ציפור בציפורין.

(v)

Question: The Mishnah taught the case of the hair of a Nazir, and can you answer there that it refers to whole creatures like a bird becoming mixed with other birds? (This seems to prove that even if it is insignificant, it is not annulled.)

כד מטון לערלה התיב רבי יעקב קומי רבי יוסי והתנינן האורג מלא הסיט מצמר בכור בבגד ידלק הבגד משיער נזיר מפטר חמור בשק ידלק השק

(w)

Answer: When they came to learn Maseches Orlah, Rav Yaakov cited the Mishnah before R. Yosi that taught - if one wove a full 'sit'-length (the distance between a person's 2nd and 3rd fingers) of the wool of a (blemished) firstborn sheep into a garment, the garment must be burned; if from the hair of a Nazir, (or) from the firstborn of a donkey (which was not redeemed and had its neck broken (Shemos 13:13)) into sackcloth, the sackcloth must be burned. (This shows that even a Nazir's hair must be of a certain size to be significant, so you cannot say that his hair is never annulled even if very small.)

א"ל אילו אמר תנא קמן איתייהיבת יאות:

(x)

(R. Yosi to R. Yaakov): If you would have raised the question against me from that Mishnah when we were learning Maseches Avodah Zarah, I would have praised you; but now that we are learning Maseches Orlah, why did you wait until now?!

2)

YAYIN NESECH THAT FELL INTO A VAT (Yerushalmi Halachah 13 Daf 36b)

משנה יין נסך שנפל לבור כולו אסור בהנייה

(a)

(Mishnah): If Yayin Nesech fell into a vat, one may not derive benefit from any of it.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר יימכר כולו לנכרי חוץ מדמי יין נסך שיש בו:

(b)

(Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel): It can all be sold to an idolater, except for the value of the Yayin Nesech that is in it.

גמרא רבי יוסי רבי יוחנן בשם בן בתירה יין נסך שנפל לבור יימכר כולו לנכרי חוץ מדמי יין נסך

(c)

(R. Yosi/ R. Yochanan citing Ben Beseirah): If Yayin Nesech fell into a vat, it can all be sold to an idolater, except for the value of the Yayin Nesech.

רבי שמואל בר נתן בשם רבי חמא הלכה כרשב"ג.

(d)

(R. Shmuel bar Nasan citing R. Chama): The Halachah follows Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

אמר רבי יסא חד רבנין נפק מבית וועדא אמר איתפלגון רבי יוחנן וריש לקיש חד אמר הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל וחד אמר אין הלכה כרשב"ג

(e)

(R. Yasa): One of the Rabbis came out of the Study Hall and said that he heard that R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagreed - one said that the Halachah follows Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and one said that it does not.

[דף לז עמוד א] ומודה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ביין לתבשיל שהוא אסור

(f)

However, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel agrees that if wine fell into a pot of food, the entire mixture is prohibited.

רבי בון בשם רב מודין חכמים לרבן שמעון בן גמליאל בחבית בין חביות למכור כולו לנכרי חוץ מדמי יין נסך שבו

(g)

(R. Bun citing Rav): The Chachamim agree to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that if a barrel of Yayin Nesech became mixed up with barrels of permitted wine, that it can all be sold to an idolater, except for the value of the Yayin Nesech.

אמר רבי זירא קומי רב אמי עד דלא איתאמר' הדא מילתא לא הוינן ידעין דו כן לא איתאמרת אלא מודין חכמים לרבן שמעון בן גמליאל או דילמא לא איתאמרת אלא מודי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל לחכמים

(h)

(R. Zeira to R. Ami): If R. Bun would not have said this, I would not have known this teaching, as I would have been in doubt that perhaps the Chachamim agree with Rabban Shimon in this case, or perhaps Rabban Shimon agrees with the Chachamim.

אמר רבי יודן ידע הוה רבי זעירא דו כן אלא כאינש דשמע מילה ומקשי עלה:

(i)

(R. Yudan): R. Zeira knew that Rav said that the Chachamim agree to Rabban Shimon but he was merely speaking like a person who heard a new teaching and who is questioning it (as if he was in doubt).

3)

A COATED STONE WINEPRESS (Yerushalmi Halachah 14 Daf 37a)

משנה גת של אבן שזפתתה נכרי מנגבה והיא טהורה

(a)

(Mishnah): If a stone winepress was tarred by an idolater, he may merely (rinse it and) dry it and it is tehorah.

ושל עץ

(b)

If the winepress is made from wood -

רבי אומר יינגב

1.

(Rebbi): He may (rinse it with water and ashes and) dry it.

וחכמים אומרים יקלף את הזפת

2.

(Chachamim): He must peel off the tar (as they would usually add wine to the tar in order to disguise its bad smell).

ושל חרס אף על פי שקילף את הזפת הרי זו אסורה:

(c)

If the winepress is made from earthenware - even if he peeled off the tar, it remains prohibited.

גמרא מתני' דרבי. של עץ רבי אומר ינגב וחכמים אומרים יקלוף את הזפת ושל חרס דלא כרבי

(d)

(Gemara): The first clause of the Mishnah was (also) said by Rebbi. The middle case of the Mishnah is - if the winepress is made of wood, Rebbi said that he may rinse and dry it and Chachamim said that he must peel off the tar. The latter case (earthenware) was not said by Rebbi, as he would permit even an earthenware winepress if it is clean with water and ashes and dried.

דתני הגת והמחץ והמשפך של נכרי רבי מתיר וחכמים אוסרין מודה רבי בקנקנים שאסורות

1.

Proof (Tosefta): A winepress, a container (for transferring wine from the vat into the barrels) and a funnel of a gentile - Rebbi permits their use (by cleaning and drying them) and the Chachamim prohibit it. (This proves that Rebbi even permits earthenware in this way.) But Rebbi agrees that earthenware jugs are prohibited. (Since they are saturated with Yayin Nesech, they are prohibited unless they are filled with water for three days, changing the water daily).

מפני מה אילו אסורין ואילו מותרין אילו מכנסן לכך ואילו אין מכנסן לכך

i.

Why are the winepress, the container and the funnel permitted (with cleaning and drying) and the jugs are prohibited? Wine is put in the jugs for a long period of time, but it is put in the others only temporarily.

רבי יוסי בשם רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי [רבי יוסי בי רבי בון בשם שמואל הלכה כרבי]

(e)

(R. Yosi citing R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi. R. Yosi bei R. Bun also said in the name of Shmuel that the Halachah follows Rebbi.

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