תוספות ד"ה למשה

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why Yaakov Avinu and Chizkiya are not on this list.)

הא דלא קחשיב נמי יעקב


Implied Question: The Gemara does not list Yakov Avinu as being one of the people for whom the sun stood still. (Why not?)

כי שם לא היו רק תשלומין כדאמרי' (חולין דף צא:) שמש ששקעה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו


Answer: This is because the sun was merely making up for the time that it set early for him, as the Gemara in Chulin (91b) states that the sun that set early for him shined for him.

ומהאי טעמא נמי לא חשיב חזקיה


Implied Question: For this same reason, Chizkiya is also not listed. (Why is this a reason that Chizkiya is not listed?)

שלא היו רק תשלומין ליום שנתקצר בימי אחז


Answer#1: The sun shined longer for Chizkiya in order to make up for the day that was shortened during the time of Achaz.

והר"ר אלחנן אומר דההוא מעשה דחזקיה לא היה אלא אות בעלמא שהרי לא עמד השמש כלל במקום אחד אלא שהלך לאחוריו דבבראשית רבה איכא נמי למ"ד וישם ה' לקין אות מלמד שהעמיד לו גלגל חמה


Answer#2: Rabeinu Elchanan says that the incident with Chizkiya was only a sign. The sun did not stand in one place, but rather went backwards. Similarly, in Bereishis Rabah there is an opinion that says that when the Pasuk says Hash-m made a sign for Kayin, it means that he made the sun go backwards (as explained by the Maharam).




תוספות ד"ה לא צריכא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the Gemara did not establish the case as being when she has a child with her.)

לכאורה מוקי לה כר"ש דאמר בפ' עשרה יוחסין (קדושין דף פ:) בזמן שאשתו עמו ישן עמהן בפונדקי שאשתו משמרתו


Observation: This apparently is according to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon who says in Kidushin (80b) that when a Jew's wife is with him, he can sleep in the same room as other women in an inn, as his wife guards him from sinning.

וא"ת אמאי לא מוקי לה בשיש עמה תינוקת דבכי האי גוונא בישראל שרי ליחודי דאמר רבא התם בגמ' מתייחד אדם עם אשה ותינוקת שיודעת טעם ביאה ואינה מוסרת עצמה לביאה


Question: Why doesn't the Gemara establish the case as when there is a child together with the woman? In such a case a man can be secluded with a woman, as Rava says in Kidushin (ibid.) that a man can be secluded together with another woman and her child, if her child understands what relations are, and would not allow a person to have relations with her.

וי"ל דלשון לא תתייחד משמע שאין שם שום ישראלית אלא היא


Answer: The term "A woman should not be secluded" implies that there is no other Jewish woman besides her that is present.



תוספות ד"ה איכא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos discusses the definition of "an important woman," and explains the difference between the opinions of Rebbi Yirmiyah and Rav Idi.)

פ"ה חשובה למלכות ואינה יפה לרבי ירמיה דמוקי לה בקרובה למלכות הא לאו הכי לא אמרי' אשה כלי זיינה עליה אלמא איכא אשה דקטלי לה ולא יהיב עובד כוכבים עלה דעתיה לביאה כגון מכוערת


Explanation#1: Rashi explains that Rebbi Yirmiyah is referring to a woman who is important to the king and is not pretty. Otherwise, we would not say that a woman has her weapons upon her (as this defends her from being killed, but presents the possibility of promiscuity). This implies that there is a woman that a Nochri would kill but he would not have relations with her, such as a woman who is ugly.

והכא שהיא חשובה למלכות ואינה יפה שריא ליחודי דליכא למיחש לשפיכות דמים כיון שהיא קרובה למלכות ולביאה נמי ליכא למיחש כיון שאינה יפה


Explanation#1 (cont.): In this case where she is important to the king and is not pretty she is permitted to be secluded with them. This is because there is no reason to suspect that she will be killed, as she is close to the king. There is also no reason to suspect that they will have relations with her, as she is not pretty.

ולרב אידי אסורה ליחודי דכולהו כלי זיינן עליהן וחיישינן לערוה דהא רב אידי סתמא אמר למילתיה ולא קאמר הכא באשה יפה דכלי זיינה עליה ע"כ פ"ה


Explanation#1 (cont.): According to Rav Idi there is no leniency for her to be secluded. This is because while all women are considered to have their weapons with them, we still suspect that a Nochri will have relations with them (whether they are pretty or not). This is indicated by the fact that Rav Idi said his statement in a general fashion, and he did not say that this is specifically referring to a pretty woman who has her weapons upon her. This is Rashi's explanation.

וקשיא חדא דלישנא דחשובה לא משמע יפה


Question#1: This is difficult. Firstly, the term "important" does not imply that she is pretty.

ועוד דכי אינה יפה נמי מאי הוי הא אמרינן בריש פירקין (לעיל דף כב:) חביבה עליהם בהמתן של ישראל יותר מנשותיהן ק"ו לנשותיהן של ישראל


Question#2: Additionally, even if she is not pretty, why should this make a difference? Didn't we say earlier (22b) that the animals of Jews are favored by Nochrim even more than their wives? Certainly the wives of Jewish are favored even more by them!

ושמא י"ל דמ"מ דבאשה לא טרחי לאנסה כיון דאינה יפה


Answer: Perhaps it is possible to answer (Question#2) that even though this is true, he will not try to rape a woman who is not pretty.

מיהו קשה דלר' ירמיה לא מישתמיט תנא או אמורא בשום מקום לחלק בשבויה בין יפה לאינה יפה להתירה לכהונה


Question#1: Rebbi Yirmiyah's position is difficult, as there is no Tana or Amora who ever differentiated regarding women who are held captive by saying that a pretty woman cannot marry a Kohen, while a woman who is not pretty can marry a Kohen.

ועוד קשה דלפ"ה משמע דאשה חשובה בין האנשים ושאינה חשובה בין הנשים חדא מילתא וא"כ היה לו לומר חשובה בין האנשים ואינה חשובה בין הנשים מדקאמר ושאינה חשובה כו' אלמא תרי מילי נינהו


Question#2: There is another difficulty. According to Rashi, the implication is that a woman who is deemed important amongst men and not among women is in fact the same thing (a pretty woman whose looks impress men but not women). If so, the Gemara should have said she is important amongst men and not amongst women. Being that it adds, "and a woman who is not important amongst women," the implication is that these are two separate categories.

לכך נראה לפרש דודאי תרי מילי נינהו דהא דקאמר אשה כלי זיינה עליה לאו משום דדעתייהו לביאה ומשום הכי לא קטלי לה אלא טעמא מפני שאינה בעלת מלחמות ומריבות כאיש מרחמים עליה


Explanation#2: It therefore appears that these are clearly two separate categories. When the Gemara says that a woman has her weapons upon her, it is not because the Nochrim want to have relations with her and therefore do not kill her (as we explained above according to Rashi). Rather, the reason is that being that she does not fight wars and in combat like a man, Nochrim have mercy on her.

וה"פ איכא בינייהו אשה חשובה בין האנשים קרובה למלכות אם מותרת להתייחד עם האנשים עובדי כוכבים דלר' ירמיה אסורה להתייחד כדקאמר טעמא באשה חשובה ואז לא נפיק לן מידי משום שפיכות דמים אי לאו משום טעמא דעריות לרב אידי שריא דאמר טעמא דליכא למיחש לשפיכות דמים דאשה כלי זיינה ומרחמי עלה אבל לעריות איכא למיחש כשהיא חשובה דמירתתי מינה אף לעריות לא חיישינן


Explanation#2 (cont.): The Gemara means that the difference between their opinions is in a case of a woman who is important amongst men, meaning she is close to the king. According to Rebbi Yirmiyah she cannot seclude herself with Nochrim. This is because his leniency is only regarding an important woman, meaning that we do not suspect she will be killed. However, we still must worry that the Nochri will have relations with her. According to Rav Idi she can be secluded in this case. He says that there is no suspicion regarding her being killed, as Nochrim have mercy on women. One would normally suspect that the Nochri would try to have relations with her. However, he will not try to do so in a case where she is an important woman, as he is scared of her. There is therefore no reason to suspect he will try to have relations with her.

ושאינה חשובה בין הנשים נמי אם היא מותרת להתייחד בין הנשים עובדות כוכבים איכא בינייהו דלרבי ירמיה כיון דאינה חשובה קטלי לה דלית ליה טעמא דמרחמי ולרב אידי שריא דכלי זיינה עליה כלומר דמרחמי עלה


Explanation#2 (cont.): There also a difference between them in a case of a woman who is not important, regarding whether or not she can be secluded with Nochri women. According to Rebbi Yirmiyah, being that she is not important, they will kill her, as they have no reason to have mercy upon her. According to Rav Idi she can be secluded with them, as her weapon is upon her. This means that the women have mercy upon her.

ואי משום עריות כדאמרי' בריש פירקין שהעובדי כוכבים מצויין אצל נשי חבריהן


Implied Question: There is no problem of promiscuity, despite the fact that the Gemara says earlier that Nochrim are commonly found around their friend's wives. (Why doesn't this mean that being secluded with the Nochri women is like being secluded with the Nochri men?)

בת דעת היא וכשתראה שיבא העובד כוכבים תצא מיד


Answer: She has knowledge enough to know that if she sees a Nochri man coming in, she should leave.

ובירושל' גרס אשה אינה בכלל שפיכות דמים א"ר ירמיה תפתר בבריאה ורבי בון אמר אפילו בתשה יכולה אשה להטמין ולומר עובדת כוכבים אני ואין האיש יכול להטמין עצמו ולומר עובד כוכבים אני


Text: The Yerushalmi has a text that a woman is not included in (suspicion that she will) being killed. Rebbi Yirmiyah says this can be understood regarding a healthy woman. Rebbi Boon says that this is even regarding a weak woman. A woman can always hide herself among Nochrim and claim to be a Nochris, while a man cannot do this (due to his Bris Milah).

ונראה לפרש אף כאן כפירוש הירושלמי באשה חשובה בריאה ובעלת כח אבל לעריות איכא למיחש דחיישי' דלמא מפתה לה ורב אידי אמר אשה כלי זיינה עליה מפני שיכולה להטמין עצמה ולא קטלי לה ושרי אי לאו משום עריות


Explanation#3: It appears that we can explain our Gemara according to this explanation of the Yerushalmi. An important woman means she is healthy and strong. However, we should suspect that she will be seduced by the Nochri. Rav Idi says a woman has her weapons upon her, meaning that she has the ability to hide, causing her not to kill her. It therefore would be permitted for her to be secluded were it not for the fact she might be seduced.

ובעי מאי בינייהו בין למר בין למר משום שפיכות דמים ליכא משום עריות איכא ומסיק איכא בינייהו אשה חשובה בין האנשים בריאה ובעלת כח דלר' ירמיה אסירי דאיכא למיחש שמא תתפתה ורב אידי לא חייש אלא דלמא מאנסי לה ואי בריאה שריא דכיון שהיא בעלת כח אין לחוש לא לאונס ולא לשפיכות דמים


Explanation#3 (cont.): The Gemara therefore asks, what is the difference between these two explanations? Both hold there is no suspicion she will be killed, but there is a suspicion that she will be seduced! The Gemara concludes that the difference between them is an important woman amongst men, meaning that she is healthy and strong. According to Rebbi Yirmiyah, she cannot be secluded with Nochrim, as we suspect that she will be seduced. According to Rav Idi, we only suspect that she will be raped. If she is healthy and strong she is permitted to be secluded, as we do not suspect that she will be raped or killed. (The Avodah Berurah gives two explanations as to why Rav Idi does not suspect she will be seduced, one being that she knows the Nochri will tell everyone that he seduced her.)

א"נ ושאינה חשובה בין הנשים איכא בינייהו דלרב אידי שריא להתייחד דיכולה להטמין עצמה הילכך לשפיכת דמים ליכא למיחש ולעריות נמי כיון שהיא בין הנשים ולרבי ירמיה משום שפיכות דמים דדוקא בבריאה לא חשו


Explanation#3 (cont.): Alternatively, there is a difference between them in a case of an unimportant woman among Nochri women. According to Rav Idi she can be secluded with them, as she can hide her Jewishness. We therefore do not suspect she will be killed, and do not suspect she will have relations with Nochrim as she is amongst women. According to Rebbi Yirmiyah she cannot be secluded with Nochri women, as we suspect she will be killed by them. We only do not suspect this if she is healthy and strong.

וא"ת בפרק האשה שהלכה (יבמות קיד:) דבעי החזיקה היא מלחמה בעולם מהו ואמרה מת בעלה אי מהימנא או לאו ובעי למיפשט דנאמנת מההיא דנפלו עלינו עובדי כוכבים נפלו עלינו ליסטין נאמנת דהחזיקה מלחמה הוא ודחי התם כדרב אידי דאמר אשה כלי זיינה עליה ולא אמר' בדדמי אלא ודאי המתינה עד שתראהו מת והשתא לר' ירמיה דלית ליה כלי זיינה תפשוט דנאמנת


Question: In Yevamos (actually 115a), the Gemara asks that if she says that her area is in a war zone, what is the law if she says that he husband died? Is she believed or not? The Gemara wants to answer that she is believed. It quotes the Beraisa where a woman says that Nochrim or bandits attacked them, and her husband was killed while she survived. She is believed. This implies she is believed because she established that there was a state of war. The Gemara there pushes this proof aside by saying that this is according to Rav Idi who says that a woman has her weapons upon her. We therefore say that she did not merely seem to see that he died, but rather waited until she saw that he was dead. According to Rebbi Yirmiyah who does not hold of this logic that a woman has her weapons upon her, one should indeed look at this Beraisa as a valid proof that she is believed!

י"ל דנהי דלית ליה האי טעמא לענין התירא להתייחד מ"מ סומכת על זה שיכולה להטמין עצמה להמתין שם שתראה שימות ולא תעיד בדדמי


Answer: It is possible to answer that even though Rebbi Yirmiyah does not agree that this logic should permit her to be secluded with a Nochri, he agrees that it can be used to say that she was able to wait and ascertain that her husband died without her having to make an assumption based on similar circumstances.