AVODAH ZARAH 74 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas the grandmother of Mr. David Kornfeld, Chayah bas Aryeh Leib Shpira (nee Sole) z'l, in honor of the day of her Yahrzeit.

1)

(a)What are Oros Levuvin?

(b)In what connection does our Mishnah list Yayin Nesech, Avodas-Kochavim and Oros Levuvin? What do they have in common?

(c)The Tana also lists Shor ha'Niskal, Eglah Arufah, Tziporei Metzora and Se'ar Nazir. From where do we know that the hair of a Nazir is Asur be'Hana'ah?

(d)And his list ends with Petter Chamor, Basar be'Chalav and Chulin she'Nishchatu ba'Azarah. Which of these is redeemable?

1)

(a)'Oros Levuvin' are - skins of animals in which a round hole was bored beside the heart, in order to remove the heart and sacrifice it.

(b)Our Mishnah lists Yayin Nesech, Avodas-Kochavim and Oros Levuvin - among the things that are Asur and that render forbidden with a 'Kol Shehu'.

(c)The Tana also lists Shor ha'Niskal, Eglah Arufah, Tziporei Metzora and Se'ar which we know is Asur be'Hana'ah - from the Pasuk in Naso, which requires it to be placed under the pot containing the Nazir's boiling Shelamim.

(d)And his list ends with Petter Chamor, Basar be'Chalav and Chulin she'Nishchatu ba'Azarah - of which the Peter Chamor is redeemable with a lamb.

2)

(a)Which case is the Tana referring to when he lists 'Basar be'Chalav'?

(b)What will be the Din if a drop of milk falls into a pot of meat, or vice-versa?

(c)What problem do we have (what has the Tana omitted from the list), if the items in our Mishnah are not Bateil because they are ...

1. ... Davar she'be'Minyan?

2. ... Isurei Hana'ah?

(d)So how does Rebbi Chiya bar Aba (or Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha) explain the Tana's omission of a piece of Neveilah and Chametz on Pesach from the list?

2)

(a)When the Tana lists Basar be'Chalav, he is referring to a case where - a piece of meat that was cooked in milk falls into a pot containing other food.

(b)If a drop of milk falls into a pot of meat, or vice-versa - it becomes Bateil be'Nosen Ta'am (one in sixty).

(c)The problem, if the items in our Mishnah are not Batel because they are ...

1. ... Davar she'be'Minyan is - why the Tana did not include a piece of Neveilah in the list, whereas if it is ...

2. ... Isurei Hana'ah - why he failed to include Chametz on Pesach.

(d)Rebbi Chiya bar Aba (or Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha) therefore explains that the Tana omits these items - because his list is confined to things that fall under both categories 'Isurei Hana'ah and 'Davar she'be'Minyan'.

3)

(a)How is the hair of a Nazir a 'Davar she'be'Minyan'?

(b)What does one do if a small piece of Chametz gets mixed up with pieces of Matzah, or a piece of Neveilah with pieces of Kasher meat?

(c)Why does the Tana omit from the list ...

1. ... nuts from Perech and pomegranates from Badan of Orlah and K'lai ha'Kerem?

2. ... privately-baked loaves of bread that got mixed up with Matzah (seeing as strictly speaking, Matzah may be anything up to a Tefach thick)?

(d)And what does he come to preclude, when he concludes 'Harei eilu Asurin ve'Isuran be'Chol Shehu'?

3)

(a)The hair of a Nazir is a 'Davar she'be'Minyan' - because one tends to tie hair into bundles and sell so many bundles per Sela in sacks.

(b)If a small piece of Chametz gets mixed up with pieces of Matzah, or a piece of Neveilah with pieces of Kasher meat - one piece is thrown into the river, and the rest may be fed to one's dogs.

(c)The Tana omits from the list ...

1. ... nuts from Perech and pomegranates from Badan of Orlah and K'lai ha'Kerem - because he has already listed them in the Mishnah in Orlah.

2. ... privately-baked loaves of bread that got mixed up with Matzah (seeing as strictly speaking, Matzah may be anything up to a Tefach thick) - because the Tana who considers privately-baked loaves a 'Davar she'be'Minyan' is Rebbi Akiva, and he inserts them there, too.

(d)When he concludes 'Harei eilu Asurin ve'Isuran be'Chol she'Hu', he comes to preclude - either Isurei Hana'ah that are not Davar she'be'Minyan or Davar she'be'Minyan that are not Isurei Hana'ah (both of which are subject to Bitul).

4)

(a)The Tana Kama of our Mishnah forbids all the wine in a wine-pit into which Yayin Nesech falls. What does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(b)Shmuel rules like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in all cases. What does Rav say?

(c)With whom do most Amora'im (Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan ... Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah) agree?

(d)The last word however, goes to Rav Nachman, who rules like Rav regarding Yayin Nesech. In which case does he rule like Shmuel?

4)

(a)The Tana Kama of our Mishnah forbids all the wine in a wine-pit into which Yayin Nesech fell. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel - permits selling the wine to a Nochri, provided one deducts the value of the Yayin Nesech from the price.

(b)Shmuel rules like Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in all cases. Rav agrees - in a case where it is barrels that got mixed up, but not wine (which actually mixes and) where he rules like the Chachamim.

(c)Most Amora'im (Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan ... Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah) agree - with Shmuel.

(d)The last word however, goes to Rav Nachman, who rules like Rav regarding Yayin Nesech - and like Shmuel, regarding S'tam Yeinam.

74b----------------------------------------74b

5)

(a)What does our Mishnah say about the stone tub (of a wine-press) that has been tarred by a Nochri?

(b)Why is this necessary?

(c)If it is a wooden tub, Rebbi requires the same method of Hechsher as a stone one, whereas the Chachamim require Kiluf. What is 'Kiluf'?

(d)Why are the Chachamim more strict by a wooden tub than by a stone one?

(e)What about a tub that is made of earthenware?

5)

(a)Our Mishnah rules that the stone tub (of a wine-press) that has been tarred by a Nochri - requires Niguv (cleaning out with ashes and water) ...

(b)... because after the tarring, one tends to add a little wine, in order to put a stop to the smoke that rises from the tar.

(c)If it is a wooden tub, Rebbi requires the same method of Hechsher as a stone one. whereas the Chachamim require 'Kiluf' - peeling off a layer from the tar ...

(d)... because wood absorbs more than stone.

(e)With regard to a tub that is made of earthenware - even Kiluf will not suffice (though this ruling is not unanimous, as we shall see in the Sugya).

6)

(a)Rava establishes our Mishnah specifically by a tub that has been tarred by a Nochri. What will the Din then be in a case where he treads the grapes in a tub that has not been tarred?

(b)Why does Rava need to tell us this? Why is it not obvious from our Mishnah, which states specifically 'she'Zafsah Akum'?

(c)What does Rava say in the second Lashon about a Nochri who tars the tub and treads the grapes?

(d)Once again, the question is asked, why is this is not obvious from the Lashon of the Mishnah itself?

(e)What makes the latter case more stringent in this regard?

6)

(a)Rava establishes our Mishnah specifically by a tub that has been tarred by a Nochri, but if he treads grapes in a tub that has not been tarred - even Niguv is unnecessary, only Hadachah (washing).

(b)Rava needs to tell us this, despite the fact that the Mishnah states specifically 'she'Zafsah Akum' - because we would otherwise have ignored the obvious implication, assuming that the Tana mentions 'she'Zafsah' because it is common for a Nochri to tar a wine-press and to add wine.

(c)In the second Lashon Rava once again establishes our Mishnah specifically by a tub that has been tarred by a Nochri, but adds that - if he then treads grapes in it, Niguv will not suffice.

(d)And here too, we explain that - if not for Rava, we would have thought that the Din is the same in both cases, and that the Tana mentions 'she'Zafsah' only because it is common, as we explained in the first Lashon).

(e)The latter case is more stringent in this regard - due to the cracks in the tar that sometimes occur, that fill with wine if one subsequently presses grapes in it.

7)

(a)We support the second Lashon with a case that took place with Rav. For what purpose did Rebbi Chiya send Rav to accompany a certain man? What request did the man make of Rebbi Chiya?

(b)What was Rav's first impression?

(c)What made him change his mind?

(d)In what way did Rebbi Chiya actually anticipate this?

(e)To whom was Rav referring when he spoke of 'Chavivi'?

7)

(a)And we support the second Lashon with a case that took place with Rav, when Rebbi Chiya sent him with a certain man who had requested that Rebbi Chiya send someone to check the Kashrus of his wine-press.

(b)Rav's first impression was that - the tar was particularly smooth, and that the tub only required Niguv.

(c)He changed his mind however - when he spotted cracks in the tar, in which wine had collected, following which he ruled that it required Kiluf.

(d)Rebbi Chiya actually anticipated this - by warning Rav to take care not to arouse the ire of his colleagues in the Beis Hamedrash (by doing what he initially intended to do).

(e)When Rav spoke of 'Chavivi', he was referring to - Rebbi Chiya, his uncle.

8)

(a)The Beraisa discusses an earthenware wine-tub itself and the jar and the funnel (from the wine-press) that were tarred by a Nochri. Rebbi permits them with Niguv alone. What do the Chachamim say?

(b)How do we know that the Tana so far is speaking a. about earthenware vessels, and b. about an un-tarred wine-press?

(c)Rebbi concedes to the Chachamim that (even un-tarred) jars require Kiluf (even though a wine-press does not). Why is that? What makes the former more stringent than the latter?

8)

(a)The Beraisa discusses an earthenware tub and the jar and the funnel (from the wine-press) that were tarred by a Nochri. Rebbi permits them with Niguv alone - The Chachamim require Kiluf.

(b)We know that the Tana so far is speaking a. about earthenware vessels, and b. about an un-tarred tub - because he is about to discuss wood and stone vessels on the one hand, and tarred vessels, on the other.

(c)Rebbi concedes to the Chachamim that (even un-tarred) jars require Kiluf (even though a wine-press does not) - because they contain the wine for longer periods of time (some of which they therefore absorb.

9)

(a)How do we reconcile our Mishnah, which permits Niguv in the case of a stone tub that a Nochri tarred, and according to Rebbi, even a wooden one, with the Beraisa, which requires a tarred tub to be peeled, even if it is made of stone?

(b)What problem do we have with the Beraisa, where Rebbi permits an earthenware tub, jar and funnel with mere Niguv?

(c)Like whom does Rava establish the Seifa of our Mishnah, to resolve the discrepancy?

(d)What does Rebbi now hold regarding...

1. ... a tarred tub made of stone or of wood?

2. ... a tarred tub made of earthenware?

3. ... an un-tarred tub made of earthenware?

9)

(a)We reconcile our Mishnah, which permits Niguv in the case of a stone tub that a Nochri tarred, and according to Rebbi, even a wooden one, with the Beraisa, which requires a tarred tub to be peeled, even if it is made of stone - by establishing the case where the Nochri trod the grapes (whereas our Mishnah speaks when he did not).

(b)The problem with the Beraisa, where Rebbi permits an earthenware tub, jar and funnel with mere Niguv is that - the Seifa of our Mishnah forbids an earthenware tub (even with Kiluf, let alone Niguv).

(c)To resolve the discrepancy, Rava establishes our Mishnah - like the Rabbanan of Rebbi.

(d)Rebbi now holds that ...

1. ... a tarred tub made of stone or of wood - requires - Niguv.

2. ... a tarred tub made of earthenware - requires - Kiluf.

3. ... an un-tarred tub made of earthenware requires - Niguv.

10)

(a)If 'Na'avah' is a wine-press, what do we mean when we say 'Rava Na'avah Art'cho'?

(b)How did Rava used to send empty barrels (which had absorbed wine) to Horpanya with a Nochri?

(c)Why did he do that?

10)

(a)'Na'avah' is a wine-press, and when we say 'Rava Na'avah Art'cho', we mean - that Rava would Kasher the tub of his wine-press with boiling water ('Hag'alah').

(b)Rava used to send empty barrels (which had absorbed wine) to Horpanya, with a Nochri - by placing them upside-down inside a sack, which he then sealed ...

(c)... because he maintained that - anything that is handed to a Nochri, even for a short time period, requires a seal within a seal (a decree in case one gives it to him for a long period).

11)

(a)According to Rav, one performs Niguv using water. What does Rabah bar bar Chanah say?

(b)On what grounds do we object to both opinions?

(c)So what does each Amora really mean?

(d)We conclude that in fact, they do not argue, because one is referring to different cases, 'Ha bi'Retivta, ve'ha be'Yabeshta'. What does this mean?

(e)Who says what?

11)

(a)According to Rav, one performs Niguv using water, whereas according to Rabah bar bar Chanah - one uses ashes.

(b)We object to both opinions however, on the grounds that, on the one hand, water is not called 'Niguv', and on the other, after cleaning the tub with ashes, one would inevitably rinse it out with water (as we shall soon see).

(c)Consequently, Rav must means - first with water, and then with ashes; and Rabah bar bar Chanah - first with ashes and then with water.

(d)And we conclude that in fact, they do not argue, because they are referring to different cases, 'Ha bi'Retivta, ve'ha be'Yabeshta' - one of them is speaking where the tub is still wet (in which case one first needs to dry them with ashes); whilst the other one is speaking where it is already dry (and one first needs to wet it before drying it out with ashes).

(e)The former opinion is that of - Rabah bar bar Chanah; the latter, that of - Rav.

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