AVODAH ZARAH 3 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

(a)Seeing as the Nochrim do not even keep their own seven Mitzvos, it is obvious that they will not ask for another six hundred plus. What then will be their complaint against Hash-m?

(b)On what grounds will they reject the testimony of ...

1. ... Hash-m that Yisrael kept all the Mitzvos?

2. ... Heaven and earth that they did so?

(c)What does Resh Lakish extrapolate from ...

1. ... the word "ha'Shishi" (in the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayehi Erev ... Yom ha'Shishi")?

2. ... the Pasuk in Tehilim "mi'Shamayim Hishma'ta Din, Eretz Yar'ah ve'Shakatah"?

(d)What will Hash-m's reply to all this? Whom will He bring to testify on behalf of Yisrael?

1)

(a)Seeing as the Nochrim do not even keep their own seven Mitzvos, it is obvious that they will not ask for another six hundred plus. Their complaint against Hash-m will therefore be that - Yisrael do not observe all their Mitzvos either.

(b)They will reject the testimony of ...

1. ... Hash-m that Yisrael kept all the Mitzvos on the grounds that - He is their Father, and the Torah disqualifies a father from testifying for (or even against) his own son.

2. ... Heaven and earth that they did, on the grounds that - they are prejudiced, since their own existence is linked to Yisrael's righteousness (as we will now see).

(c)Resh Lakish extrapolates from ...

1. ... the word "ha'Shishi" (in the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayehi Erev ... Yom ha'Shishi") that - at the time of the creation, Hash-m made a condition with the world that it would only be finally established on the sixth of Sivan, if Yisrael would accept the Torah; otherwise, He would revert it to null and void, as it was before it was created.

2. ... the Pasuk in Tehilim "mi'Shamayim Hishma'ta Din, Eretz Yar'ah ve'Shakatah" that - at first, the world was apprehensive, and that it only calmed down after Yisrael declared 'Na'aseh ve'Nishna'.

(d)Hash-m will reply - that in that case, He would bring witnesses from among the Nochrim themselves who would attest to Yisrael's righteousness.

2)

(a)If Nimrod will testify that Avraham did not worship idols and Lavan, that Ya'akov did not steal, what will be the gist of the testimony of ...

1. ... Potifera's wife?

2. ... Nevuchadnetzar?

3. ... Daryavesh?

(b)The last set of three men that Hash-m will bring to testify will be Beldad ha'Shuchi, Tzofer ha'Na'amasi and Elifaz ha'Teimani. What is the connection between them and the Pasuk "Yitnu Eideihen Ve'yitzdaku"? On whose behalf will they testify?

(c)Why would it not be correct to add 'Elihu ben Berechel ha'Buzi' (another friend of Iyov) to this list?

2)

(a)Nimrod will testify that Avraham did not worship idols and Lavan, that Ya'akov did not steal ...

1. ... Potifera's wife that - Yosef did not commit adultery ...

2. ... Nevuchadnetzar, that - Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah did not worship idols ...

3. ... and Daryavesh that - Daniel did not negate Tefilah.

(b)The last set of three men that Hash-m will bring to testify will be Beldad ha'Shuchi, Tzofer ha'Na'amasi and Elifaz ha'Teimani (friends of Iyov) - the ones referred to in the Pasuk in Yeshayah that we cited above "Yitnu Eideihen Ve'yitzdaku", who will testify - as to Yisrael's loyalty to Hash-m.

(c)It would not be correct to add 'Elihu ben Berechel ha'Buzi' (another friend of Iyov) to this group - because he was a Jew.

3)

(a)What request will the Nochrim then make of Hash-m?

(b)What will be Hash-m's initial response? Why will they not really deserve another chance?

(c)In spite of that, Hash-m will accede to their request and give them the Mitzvah of Succah. How will He describe it?

(d)We query Hash-m's benevolence from a D'rashah of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi. What dual D'rashah did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi Darshen from the word "ha'Yom" (in the Pasuk in Va'eschanan " ... asher Anochi Metzaveh eschem ha'Yom")?

(e)Based on what principle will He nevertheless offer them a second chance?

3)

(a)The Nochrim will then ask Hash-m - to give them another chance.

(b)Hash-m's initial response will be - to cite the Ma'amar Chazal 'Mi she'Tarach be'Erev Shabbos, Yochal be'Shabbos'. How can someone who did not prepare here in this world, expect to receive reward in the World to Come?

(c)In spite of that, Hash-m will accede to their request and give them the Mitzvah of Succah, which He will describe as - an easy Mitzvah.

(d)We query Hash-m's benevolent act from Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who Darshened from the word "ha'Yom" (in the Pasuk in Va'eschanan " ... asher Anochi Metzaveh eschem ha'Yom") - 1. 'ha'Yom La'asosam, ve'Lo le'Machar La'asosam (the time to perform Mitzvos is today before Mashi'ach comes [afterwards will be too late]; 2. ha'Yom La'asosam, ve'Lo ha'Yom Litol S'charam' (now is the time to perform the Mitzvos, the reward comes only later.

(e)He will nevertheless grant them a second chance, based on the principle - 'she'Ein Hakadosh-Barush-Hu Ba bi'T'runya al B'riyosav' (Hash-m does not act despotically with His Creations).

4)

(a)The Nochrim will accept Hash-m's offer and build a Succah on their rooftops. What is the significance of the location?

(b)How will Hash-m then test them?

(c)Why will testing them in this way not be considered behaving 'despotically'?

(d)How will the Nochrim react to the rest?

4)

(a)The Nochrim will accept Hash-m's offer and build a Succah on their rooftops - which is the most convenient spot to build Succos for people with flat roofs.

(b)Hash-m will test the Nochrim - by causing a midsummer sun to begin beating down on them (despite the fact that this will occur in Tishri).

(c)Testing them in this way will not be considered behaving 'despotically' - because, seeing as it sometimes happens to us that the summer season extends into Succos, it falls within the realm of a natural phenomenon.

(d)The Nochrim will react to the test - by exiting their Succos angrily, giving them a kick on their way out.

5)

(a)Is a Yisrael Chayav Succah under the above circumstances?

(b)Then what will the Nochrim have done wrong?

(c)How would a Yisrael exit his Succah under those same circumstances?

(d)How will Hash-m react to the Nochrim's behavior?

(e)What does Rebbi Yitzchak comment about that reaction?

5)

(a)A Yisrael is Patur from Succah under the above circumstances.

(b)Consequently, it is (not the exiting itself that will be faulty but rather) - the way in which they will exit. To give it a kick demonstrates the attitude that Hash-m (Kevayachol) is rejecting their favors.

(c)A Yisrael on the other hand, would leave dejectedly (as the Mishnah explains in Succah), because he feels that it is not he who does Hash-m a favor, but Hash-m who grants him the privilege of serving Him, a privilege of which he has currently been deemed unworthy.

(d)Hash-m will react to the Nochrim's behavior - by laughing, as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "He dwells in the Heaven and laughs".

(e)Rebbi Yitzchak comments that - this will be the only occasion on which Hash-m will ever have laughed in this world.

3b----------------------------------------3b

6)

(a)In the second Lashon, Rebbi Yitzchak's comment refers to a statement of Rebbi Yossi, who says in a Beraisa that in the days of Mashi'ach, Ovdei Kochavim will convert. What does another Beraisa say about converts in the days of Mashi'ach and in the days of David and Shlomoh?

(b)What is the reason for this ruling?

(c)How do we reconcile Rebbi Yossi with the second Beraisa? What are 'Geirim Gerurim'?

(d)If the Pasuk in Tehilim "Lamah Ragshu Goyim, u'Le'umim Yehegu Rik" refers to Gog and Magog coming to attack Hash-m and His Mashi'ach, what is the significance of the next Pasuk "Nenatkah es Mosroseimo ve'Nashlich mimenu Avoseimo"?

6)

(a)In the second Lashon, Rebbi Yitzchak's comment refers to a statement of Rebbi Yossi, who says in a Beraisa that in the days of Mashi'ach, Ovdei Kochavim will convert. Another Beraisa states that - they will not accept converts in the days of Mashi'ach, just as they did not accept them in the days of David and Shlomoh ...

(b)... because it is only when Yisrael are impoverished that one accepts the Geirim who come to convert (because it is only then that the Geirim are sincere), but not when they are thriving.

(c)We reconcile Rebbi Yossi with the second Beraisa - by establishing the Geirim there as 'Geirim Gerurim', converts who will convert of their own volition, who will attach Tzitzis to their clothes, wear Tefilin and fix Mezuzos to their doorposts.

(d)The Pasuk "Lamah Ragshu Goyim, u'Le'umim Yehegu Rik" refers to Gog and Magog coming to attack Hash-m and His Mashi'ach (and K'lal Yisrael), and the next Pasuk "Nenatkah es Mosroseimo ve'Nashlich mimenu Avoseimo" - to the Geirim Gerurim, who, the moment they discover Gog and Magog's intentions, will promptly take off their Tzitzis and Tefilin and the Mezuzos from their doorposts, and forget about their 'conversions'.

7)

(a)How does the Pasuk there describe Hash-m's reaction? What did Rebbi Yitzchak comment on that?

(b)The Beraisa describes Hash-m's daily schedule. If, during ...

1. ... the first three hours of the day, He studies Torah, what does He do during the second?

2. ... the third three hours He feeds all the creatures in the world from the largest beast down to the eggs of lice, what does He do during the last three? From where do we know this?

7)

(a)The Pasuk there describing Hash-m's reaction - writes "Yoshev ba'Shamayim Yischak", which according to Rebbi Yitzchak (in the second Lashon) - will be the only time that Hash-m will ever have laughed in this world.

(b)The Beraisa describes Hash-m's daily schedule. During ...

1. ... the first three hours of the day, He studies Torah, during the second - He judges the world.

2. ... the third three hours He feeds all the creatures in the world from the largest beast down to the eggs of lice, and during the last three - He laughs with the Livyasan (as the Pasuk writes in Borchi Nafshi "Livyasan Zeh Yatzarta Lesachek bo").

8)

(a)What does Hash-m do in the second time-period, when He sees that the world cannot exist on Midas ha'Din?

(b)How does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak reconcile Rebbi Yossi with this Beraisa, from which we see that Hash-m does laugh in this world?

(c)Why could he not have answered that Rebbi Yossi, who is a Tana, argues with this Beraisa?

8)

(a)In the second time-period, when Hash-m sees that the world cannot exist on Midas ha'Din - He moves from the Throne of Din to the Throne of Rachamim).

(b)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak reconciles Rebbi Yossi with this Beraisa, from which we see that Hash-m does laugh in this world - by simply differentiating between 'laughing at' (the first Beraisa [which Hash-m only did on that one occasion]) and 'laughing with' (the second Beraisa [which He does every day]).

(c)He could not however, have answered that Rebbi Yossi, who is a Tana, argues with this Beraisa - because the author of the second Beraisa can only be Rebbi Yossi, who holds in Rosh Hashanah that people are judged every day (and not just once a year like the Chachamim, according to whom this Beraisa cannot go).

9)

(a)What did Rav Acha say to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak about the day of the Churban Beis Hamikdash and onwards?

(b)On what grounds do we reject the source for this as being the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Yeshayah "Vayikra Hash-m Elokim Tzevakos ba'Yom ha'Hu le'Bechi u'le'Misped"?

2. ... in Tehilim "Im Eshkachech Yerushalayim, Tishkach Yemini ... "?

(c)We finally cite Rav Acha's source for his statement as the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Hecheshesi me'Olam, Acharish Es'apak' (describing Hash-m's silence following the Churban). In that case, what does Hash-m now do during the fourth period of the day?

(d)Before the Churban, it is possible that He did both occupations. Otherwise, who learned with the children before the Churban?

9)

(a)Rav Acha told Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak that, from the day of the Churban Beis Hamikdash and onwards - Hash-m does not laugh (even with the Livyasan).

(b)We reject the source for this as being the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Yeshayah "Vayikra Hash-m Elokim Tzevakos ba'Yom ha'Hu le'Bechi u'le'Misped" - because this Pasuk refers to the day of the Churban only, and no more.

2. ... in Tehilim "Im Eshkachech Yerushalayim, Tishkach Yemini ... " - because that Pasuk only speaks about never forgetting the day of the Churban, but not about not laughing (see Tosfos' explanation of the Pasuk DH 'Im').

(c)We finally cite Rav Acha's source for his statement as the Pasuk "Hecheshesi me'Olam, Acharish Es'apak' (describing Hash-m's silence following the Churban). And what He does during the fourth period of the day is - to study Torah with the children who died young.

(d)Before the Churban, it is possible that Hash-m did both occupations. Otherwise - the Angel Matatron studied with them.

10)

(a)At nighttime, Hash-m may well follow the same timetable as He does by day. What else might He do, based on the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Rechev Elokim Ribosayim Alfei Shin'an"? How would we then extrapolate it from the Pasuk?

2. ... "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, u'va'Laylah Shiroh Imi"?

(b)What does Rebbi Levi say about someone who stops learning Divrei Torah in order to talk idle chatter?

(c)Based on the Pasuk that we just quoted "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, u'va'Laylah Shiroh Imi", what does Resh Lakish say about David Hamelech, who sang Hash-m's praises and studied Torah by night? What does the Pasuk mean?

(d)How does he explain the Pasuk in the second Lashon (about someone who learns Torah in this world)? What does that have to do with day and night?

10)

(a)At nighttime, Hash-m may well follow the same timetable as He does by day. Alternatively, based on the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Rechev Elokim Ribosayim Alfei Shin'an" - which means that the Chariot of Hash-m is twenty thousand minus two (thousand ['Al Tikri "Sha'anan", Ela "she'Einan"]), He might fly through the eighteen thousand worlds on one of His swift cherubs.

2. ... "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, u'va'Laylah Shiroh Imi" - He might sit and listen to the Songs of Praise sung by the Chayos ha'Kodesh.

(b)Rebbi Levi says that someone who stops learning Divrei Torah in order to talk idle chatter - will eventually be fed burning coals.

(c)Based on the Pasuk that we just quoted "Yomam Yetzaveh Hash-m Chasdo, u'va'Laylah Shiroh Imi", Resh Lakish says that - David Hamelech, who sang Hash-m's praises and studied Torah by night - merited a special Divine 'thread of kindness' (to find favor in the eyes of everyone) by day (see also Agados Maharsha).

(d)In the second Lashon, he explains - that anyone who learns Torah in this world (which is compared to night), will merit that 'thread of kindness' in Olam ha'Ba (which is compared to day).

11)

(a)What analogy does Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learn from the Pasuk "Va'ta'aseh Adam ki'Degei ha'Yam"?

(b)What is the first comparison, based on the fact that a fish that leaves water cannot survive?

11)

(a)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learns an analogy from the Pasuk "Va'ta'aseh Adam ki'Degei ha'Yam" - comparing Yisrael to fish.

(b)The first comparison is that - a Yisrael who relinquishes Torah and Mitzvos, just like a fish that leaves water, cannot survive.

12)

(a)The second comparison is based on the fact that when fish are exposed to the sun, they die. What two connotations does this have as far as the comparison of Yisrael to fish is concerned?

(b)The former is based on a statement by Rebbi Chanina. What did Rebbi Chanina list as the only two things that are not in the Hands of Hash-m?

(c)The latter is based on a statement by Resh Lakish. What did Resh Lakish say about Gehinom in the time of Mashi'ach?

(d)And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Mal'achi ...

1. ... "Ve'zarchah lachem Yir'ei Hash-m, Shemesh Tzedakah u'Marpei bi'Chenafehah"?

2. ... "Vi'yetzasem u'Pishtem be'Eglei Marbeik"?

12)

(a)The second comparison is based on the fact that when fish are exposed to the sun they die. Likewise - when a person is exposed to the sun's heat, he dies, either in this world, or in the World to Come.

(b)The former is based on a statement by Rebbi Chanina, who said that - the only two things that are not in the Hands of Hash-m are colds and overheating.

(c)The latter, is based on a statement by Resh Lakish, who said that - in the time of Mashi'ach, there will be no Gehinom per se; only Hash-m will take the sun out of its bag and the Resha'im will be punished by means of its excessive heat.

(d)And he learns from the Pasuk in Mal'achi ...

1. ... "Ve'zarchah Lachem Yir'ei Hash-m Shemesh Tzedakah u'Marpei bi'Chenafehah" that - the very same sun that will punish the Resha'im, will cure the Tzadikim of all their ailments.

2. ... "Vi'yetzasem u'Pishtem be'Eglei Marbeik" that - in addition, they will actually derive pleasure from the sun.

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