MIXTURES WITH 'YAYIN NESECH'
(Mishnah): Yayin Nesech (R. Tam; Ramban - the same applies to all wine of Nochrim) is forbidden. (If it was mixed with other wine,) it forbids b'Mashehu (any amount).
If wine mixes with water or water mixes with wine, it (the forbidden liquid) forbids b'Nosen Ta'am (if it can be tasted in the mixture; Rif - if it improves the taste, i.e. at least one part in seven is wine, such a mixture is considered wine);
The general rule is:
Min b'Mino (if Isur (forbidden food) was mixed with the same variety of Heter (permitted food)), it forbids b'Mashehu;
Lo b'Mino (if different varieties mixed), it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
(Gemara - Rav Dimi citing R. Yochanan): If one pours Yayin Nesech from a barrel into a pit of wine, even for an entire day, each bit poured in becomes Batel (it is all permitted) (Tosfos - if all the Yayin Nesech is less than one part in 60 of the Heter wine; Ra'avad - as long as he does not pour this much Yayin Nesech (one part in 60 of the Heter wine) in at one time (i.e. without stopping); Rashi - even if he pours in this amount at once).
Question (Mishnah): Yayin Nesech is forbidden. It forbids b'Mashehu.
Suggestion: This is even if Yayin Nesech fell into Heter.
Answer: No, it is if Heter fell into Yayin Nesech.
Question (Mishnah): If wine mixes with water, it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
Suggestion: Asur wine fell into Heter water.
Answer: No, Heter wine fell into Asur water (e.g. the water was Ne'evad).
Question: Since this clause discusses Asur water, also the next clause (if water mixes with wine, it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am) does. This refutes Rav Dimi, who says that each bit is Batel!
Answer: No, the entire Mishnah discusses Heter that fell into Isur. The Seifa discusses Heter water that fell into Asur wine.
(R. Yitzchak bar Yosef citing R. Yochanan): If one pours Yayin Nesech from a small flask into a pit of wine, even for an entire day, each bit poured in becomes Batel;
This is only if he pours from a small flask. If he pours from a barrel, it flows in a large stream, it is forbidden.
(Ravin citing R. Yochanan): If Yayin Nesech fell into a pit of wine, and also water fell in, we ignore the Heter wine. If there is enough water to Mevatel the Yayin Nesech, it is permitted.
Version #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah citing R. Yochanan): Ravin's law applies only if the water fell in before the Yayin Nesech - but if the Yayin Nesech fell in first, it forbids the whole pit (and there is not enough water to Mevatel all the wine in the pit).
Version #2 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah citing R. Yochanan): The Mishnah says that Yayin Nesech is forbidden and forbids b'Mashehu. This is only if water did not fall in also;
If water also fell in, we ignore the Heter wine, and if there is enough water to Mevatel the Yayin Nesech, it is permitted. (end of Version #2)
Question: What difference does it make if Rav Shmuel explained the Mishnah or Ravin's law?
Answer: If he explained the Mishnah, he does not distinguish whether the water fell in before or after the Yayin Nesech;
If he commented on Ravin, he teaches that if the water did not fall first, it does not Mevatel the Yayin Nesech.
IGNORING THE PERMITTED WINE
(Chizkiyah): If Yayin Nesech fell into a pit containing wine of Heter and water
(Chizkiyah): If the Isur increased (Rashi - i.e. the pit contained wine of Heter, and water and Yayin Nesech fell in, in either order; Tosfos - the water fell in after the wines already mixed and were all forbidden), the mixture is forbidden (there is not enough water to Mevatel all the wine);
If the Heter increased (the pit contained Yayin Nesech, water fell in (and was Mevatel it), and later wine of Heter fell in), it is permitted.
(R. Yochanan): Even if the Isur increased (Rashi - and the water preceded the Yayin Nesech), it is permitted
Suggestion (R. Yirmeyah): Chizkiyah and R. Yochanan argue as R. Eliezer and Chachamim do!
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If Se'or of Chulin and of Terumah fell into a dough, and there was not enough of either one to be Mechametz the dough, and together they made it Chametz, the dough is like the last one that fell in;
Chachamim say, no matter which fell in last, it is forbidden (to a non-Kohen) only if there was enough (Se'or of) Terumah to be Mechametz it without the Chulin.
Rejection (R. Zeira): No. Abaye taught that this is only if the Terumah was removed before the Se'or fell in. If it was not removed, R. Eliezer forbids in both cases;
In our case, the Isur was not removed. Chizkiyah is like neither Tana (R. Eliezer would forbid whether Isur or Heter increased, and Chachamim would permit)!
(R. Zeira): Rather, they argue about whether we ignore (the permitted wine). Chizkiyah says that we do not ignore it (when Isur increased). R. Yochanan says that we do.
Question: R. Yochanan was unsure whether we ignore!
Question (Rav Asi): If two cups of wine (diluted with water) got mixed together, one was Chulin, the other was Terumah, what is the law? (There was 60 (R. Yitzchak - six) times as much water as Terumah wine, but not 60 (R. Yitzchak - six) times as much as all the wine. Do we ignore the Chulin wine?)
R. Yochanan was unable to answer.
Answer: Originally, he was unsure. Later, he concluded that we ignore.
Support (R. Ami citing R. Yochanan): If two cups of diluted wine, Chulin and Terumah, got mixed, we ignore the Chulin wine, and the water (if there is enough) is Mevatel the Terumah.
WHICH 'ISURIM' FORBID B'MASHEHU?
(Mishnah): The general rule is: Min b'Mino forbids b'Mashehu. Lo b'Mino forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
(Rav and Shmuel): All forbidden foods, if mixed b'Mino, forbid b'Mashehu. If mixed Lo b'Mino, they forbid b'Nosen Ta'am;
The Mishnah says 'the general rule is' to include all forbidden foods.
(R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish): Only Tevel (Tosfos - and other Isurim that have Matirim, i.e. one has a permitted way or time to eat them (without incurring a loss), such as Shemitah, Ma'aser Sheni, and Hekdesh) and Yayin Nesech forbid b'Mashehu Min b'Mino, and Lo b'Mino, b'Nosen Ta'am;
Everything else forbids b'Nosen Ta'am, whether b'Mino or Lo b'Mino.
The Mishnah says 'the general rule is' to include Tevel.
Support (for Rav and Shmuel - Beraisa): All forbidden foods, if mixed b'Mino, forbid b'Mashehu. If mixed Lo b'Mino, they forbid b'Nosen Ta'am.
Support (for R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish - Beraisa): All forbidden foods forbid b'Nosen Ta'am, whether b'Mino or Lo b'Mino; (Note - normally, b'Mino the Isur tastes like the Heter; it is Batel in 60- Chulin 98a.)
The only exceptions are Tevel and Yayin Nesech. If mixed b'Mino, they forbid b'Mashehu. Lo b'Mino, they forbid b'Nosen Ta'am.
Question: Granted, we are more stringent about Yayin Nesech due to the severity of idolatry;
Why are we more stringent about Tevel (Tosfos - even when it does not have Matirim)?
Answer: Its Isur resembles the way it becomes permitted:
(Shmuel): Separating even one grain of Terumah permits any quantity of Tevel (mid'Oraisa).
Support (Mishnah): Tevel forbids b'Mashehu b'Mino. Lo b'Mino, it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am (because the above reasoning does not apply).