A 'NOCHRI' WHO DOES NOT SERVE IDOLATRY
Rav Yehudah sent a gift to Avidarna (a Nochri) on the Nochri festival. He reasoned that this is permitted, for he does not serve idolatry.
Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa - R. Meir): A Ger Toshav is one who accepted in front of three Chaverim not to serve idolatry. (Avidarna did not accept in front of three!)
Answer (Rav Yehudah): That refers to the Mitzvah to support him.
Question: Rabah bar bar Chanah taught that if a Ger Toshav did not circumcise himself within 12 months, he is like a Nochri Min! (Avidarna has refrained from idolatry for longer than this without circumcising himself.)
Answer: This is only if he accepted to circumcise himself, but did not.
Rava sent a gift to Bar Shishach (a Nochri) on the Nochri festival. He reasoned that this is permitted, for he does not serve idolatry. He found him in a bathhouse, surrounded by naked harlots.
Bar Shishach: Is your world to come as good as this?
Rava: Our world to come is better than this.
Bar Shishach: Can anything be better than this?!
Rava: You fear the king. We will not fear the King. (Iyun Yakov; Rashi (Vayikra 26:12) must explain like Anaf Yosef, that we will not fear our (mortal) king in the days of Mashi'ach. Alternatively, we will not tremble in fear of our King (Hash-m), but we will fear Him.)
Bar Shishach: I do not fear the king!
A messenger of the king came. He told Bar Shishach 'go! The king wants you.'
Bar Shishach (as he was leaving): The eye that wishes to see bad things befall you, it should fall out!
Rava answered 'Amen.' Bar Shishach's eye fell out.
Rav Papa: Rava should have proven that our world to come is better from "Benos Melachim bi'Krosecha Nitzvah Shegal li'Mincha b'Chesem Ofir" (princesses will honor you (or seek to help you), your wife will have ornaments of the finest gold).
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: He should have proven this from "Ayin Lo Ra'asa Elokim Zulasecha Ya'aseh li'Mchakeh Lo."
PAYMENT FOR WORK WITH 'YAYIN NESECH'
(Mishnah): If he hired him for different work (even if he asked him to transport a barrel of Yayin Nesech, the wages are permitted).
Inference: Even if he moved the barrel before he finished the day's work, the wages are permitted.
Contradiction (Beraisa): If a Nochri hired a Yisrael (for different work) and asked him at the end of the day to transport a barrel of Yayin Nesech, the wages are permitted.
Inference: Had he asked him during the day, the wages would be forbidden!
Answer #1 (Abaye): The Mishnah permits the wages only if he asked him at the end of the day.
Answer #2 (Rava): In the Beraisa, he was hired to move 100 barrels for 100 Perutos (so he is not entitled to any wages until he moves the Yayin Nesech);
In the Mishnah, he was hired to move 100 barrels for one Perutah each (so he is entitled to receive 99 Perutos for the other barrels).
Support (Beraisa): If a Nochri hired a Yisrael to move 100 barrels for 100 Perutos, and one of them contained Yayin Nesech, the wages are forbidden;
If he was hired to move 100 barrels for one Perutah each, the wages (for the other barrels) are permitted.
(Mishnah): If a Nochri rented a Yisrael's donkey to carry Yayin Nesech, the wages are forbidden.
Question: We already know this from the Reisha (a Yisrael's wages for working with Yayin Nesech are forbidden)!
Answer: The Chidush is the following clause. If he rented it to ride on, even if he puts his wine pouch on it, (all the) rental is permitted.
Inference: This teaches that a renter is not entitled to put his pouch on (otherwise, part of the wages would be for carrying Yayin Nesech);
Contradiction (Beraisa): If one rents a donkey to ride on, he may put on it his garment, food and drink for this journey. The owner can stop him from putting any more on it;
The owner (who is accompanying him) can put on it the donkey's food and his own food for one day. The renter can stop him from putting more than this.
Answer (Abaye): Really, a renter is entitled to put his pouch on. However, if he did not, he cannot deduct from the rental (therefore, the Yisrael does not benefit from the Yayin Nesech).
Question: What is the case?
If they will be able to buy food on the way, also the owner should be able to limit the renter to one day's food!
If they will not be able to buy food on the way, also the owner should be allowed food for the whole journey!
Answer (Rav Papa): The case is, it is hard but possible to buy in between where they lodge at nights;
The owner is used to buying food this way, so he must do so;
A renter is not used to buying this way, so he may take food for the whole journey.
The father of Rav Acha brei d'Rav Ika would bring barrels of wine, sell it to Nochrim and pour it into their pouches. He would take them across the river, and they would pay for this with the empty barrels.
People told this to Abaye. (They held that the wine becomes Yayin Nesech in their pouches, and Rav Acha's father benefits from it)!
Abaye: He works with permitted wine (before it lands in their pouches, and mixes with leftover drops of Yayin Nesech, or absorbs it from the walls of the pouches).
Question: Their pouches are forbidden, and he benefits from them. If the pouches would break, they would need the barrels, they would not give to them to him!
Answer #1: He stipulated with them that he is entitled to the barrels in any case.
Answer #2: They had extra containers in case the pouches would break.
Question: He transported them and their Yayin Nesech across the river (and was paid for this)!
Answer: He did not transport them himself. He arranged with the ferryman to take them across for free. (The ferryman knew the people, or Rav Acha's father would give to them a sign.)
ABSORPTIONS OF 'YAYIN NESECH'
(Mishnah): If Yayin Nesech fell onto grapes, the grapes must be rinsed, and then they are permitted;
If the grapes were broken (Tosfos - or detached from the cluster, this leaves a hole), they are forbidden (for they absorb).
(If Yayin Nesech fell on dates or figs, if it gives a taste to them, they are forbidden - Rashbam's text omits this.).
A case occurred in which Baisus ben Zunin brought dried figs on a boat, and Yayin Nesech fell on them. Chachamim permitted them.
The general rule is, if Isur gives a beneficial taste, (what it fell into) is forbidden;
If it does not give a beneficial taste, it is permitted, such as vinegar that fell on grits.
(Gemara) Question: The episode brought does not support the Halachah. It contradicts it!
Answer: The Mishnah is abbreviated. It means as follows:
If the Yayin Nesech gave a detrimental taste, what it fell on is permitted;
A case occurred in which Baisus ben Zunin brought dried figs on a boat, and Yayin Nesech fell on them. Chachamim permitted them. (According to our text, we must say that wine improves the taste of moist figs, but it is detrimental to dry figs.)
Yayin Nesech fell on wheat. Rava permitted to sell the wheat to Nochrim.
Question (Rabah bar Livai - Beraisa): If a thread of (linen in a wool garment (or vice-versa), which makes it) Kil'ayim was lost in a garment, the garment may not be sold to a Nochri, nor used to make a saddle;
One may use it for shrouds for a Mes.
Question: Why may it not be sold to a Nochri?
Answer: Perhaps he will sell it to a Yisrael;
For the same reason, we should not sell wheat that absorbed Yayin Nesech to a Nochri!
Rava retracted. He permitted to make bread from the wheat and sell it to Nochrim, and not in the presence of a Yisrael (bread of a Nochri is forbidden, a Yisrael would not buy it unless he knew that the Nochri bought it from a Yisrael).
Question (Mishnah): If Yayin Nesech fell onto grapes, the grapes must be rinsed, and then they are permitted. If the grapes were broken, they are forbidden.
Inference: If they are whole, they are permitted. Likewise, the wheat should be permitted!
Answer (Rav Papa): Wheat has cracks. It absorbs as if it was broken.