1)SELLING WEAPONS TO NOCHRIM (cont.)

(a)Version #2 - Answer: When they run out of weapons, they use their shields to kill;

1.The lenient opinion holds that when they run out of weapons, they flee. (end of Version #2)

(b)(Rav Nachman): The Halachah is, we may sell shields to them.

(c)(Rav Ada bar Ahavah): We may not sell to them slabs of iron.

1.This is because they make weapons from it.

(d)Question: If so, we should not sell shovels or axes either!

(e)Answer (Rav Zvid): Rav Ada forbids only Indian iron, which is exclusively for making weapons.

(f)Question: Why do we sell to them nowadays?

(g)Answer (Rav Ashi): We sell to the Persians, for they (protect the cities, and thereby) protect us.

2)SELLING WORK ANIMALS TO NOCHRIM

(a)(Mishnah): Calves and colts...

(b)(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell a lame animal to a Nochri, because it cannot heal.

1.Chachamim: He will keep the animal to bear children! (People will see a Yisrael's animal with a Nochri, and come to sell healthy animals.)

2.R. Yehudah: It will never bear children.

(c)R. Yehudah holds that it will not allow a male to mate with it.

(d)(Mishnah): Ben Beseira permits selling a horse.

(e)(Beraisa - Ben Beseira): A horse is permitted, because its work (carrying people) is not a desecration of Shabbos for which people are killed for (we say that people carry themselves);

(f)Rebbi says, a horse is forbidden for two reasons. It is like a weapon, and it is a work animal.

(g)Question: Granted, it is like a weapon, for it kills fallen soldiers with its forelegs;

1.Question: Why is it considered a work animal?

(h)Answer (R. Yochanan): When it grows old, people make it turn a millstone.

(i)(R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows Ben Beseira.

(j)Question: May one sell a fattened ox (R. Tam - an ox proper to be fattened)?

1.This question is according to R. Yehudah and Chachamim.

2.R. Yehudah permits selling a lame animal, for it will never be proper to work, but a fattened ox will become proper if left for a while!

3.Chachamim forbid selling a lame animal, for it was not sold to be eaten (perhaps he will keep it to bear children), but a fattened ox is to be eaten!

(k)Answer: Rav Yehudah taught that Romi required Rebbi's house to give to them a fattened ox on every idolatrous festival. Rebbi paid them 40,000 coins to allow him to give it the next day instead. He paid them another 40,000 to allow him to give it after it was slaughtered. He paid another 40,000 to exempt him from it entirely.

1.Suggestion: He paid to abolish the practice because it is forbidden, lest the Nochri keep the ox for a while.

2.Question: If so, why did he pay to give the ox on the next day instead?

3.Answer: You must say that he intended to abolish the practice in stages.

(l)Question: If a fattened ox is left for a while, will it really become suitable for work?

(m)Answer (Rav Ashi): Yes! A fattener told me that if it is left for a while, it will work twice as good as a normal ox.

3)SELLING CHAYOS TO NOCHRIM

(a)(Mishnah): We may not sell to Nochrim lions, bears or anything that will cause damage to the public;

(b)We may not build with them buildings or scaffolds for execution, courthouses (where they judge capital cases), or stadiums (where people are thrown to (be gored by) bulls).

(c)One may build with them altars (they are not directly used to serve idolatry) and bathhouses;

1.One may not help build the place where they put the idol.

(d)(Gemara - Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda citing Rav): A large Chayah is like a small Behemah regarding Pirkus (quivering after slaughter. If a dangerously sick animal stuck out a limb but did not quiver after slaughter, it is forbidden, as if it died before the slaughter ended), but not regarding selling it to Nochrim (rather, it is always forbidden);

(e)(Rav Chanan himself): It is the same also regarding selling it. It is permitted or forbidden, based on the local custom.

(f)Question (Mishnah): We may not sell to Nochrim lions, bears or anything that will cause damage to the public.

1.Inference: (Tame) lions that do not damage may be sold!

(g)Answer #1 (Rabah bar Ula): The Mishnah discusses a lame lion. It is like R. Yehudah (who permits selling large lame animals).

16b----------------------------------------16b

(h)Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Lions do not work. All are considered lame (Rashi - R. Yehudah permits tame lions; Tosfos - even Chachamim permit them).

(i)Question (Beraisa): Just like we may not sell large Behemos to Nochrim, we may not sell large Chayos, even where small Behemos are permitted.

1.Rav Chanan is refuted.

(j)Question (Ravina): Our Mishnah forbids selling lions, bears or anything that will cause damage to the public;

1.Inference: Large Chayos that do not damage are permitted.

2.Contradiction (Beraisa): Just like we may not sell large Behemos to Nochrim, we may not sell large Chayos, even where small Behemos are permitted.

(k)Answer #1 (Ravina): The Mishnah discusses a lame lion; it is like R. Yehudah.

(l)Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Lions do not work. All are considered lame.

(m)Objection (Rav Nachman): Perhaps lions are not considered large Chayos, rather small Chayos (i.e. there is no question at all)!

(n)Question (against Rav Chanan - Rav Ashi - Mishnah): We may not sell lions, bears or anything that will cause damage to the public.

1.Inference #1: If they did not damage, they would be permitted.

2.Inference #2: The Mishnah only listed lions and bears, which do not work, but large Chayos that work would be forbidden!

3.This refutes Rav Chanan (from the Mishnah itself).

(o)Question: What work do large Chayos do?

(p)Answer (Abaye): Wild donkeys pull millstones.

4)THE LAW OF PIRKUS

(a)(Rav Yehudah): A large Chayah has the same law as a small Behemah regarding Pirkus; I do not remember if I heard this from Rav or from Shmuel.

(b)R. Chiya bar Ashi: Shmuel taught this.

(c)Rabah bar Yirmeyah: Rav taught this.

(d)Rav Asi: Rav Chama bar Gurya taught this in Rav's name.

(e)Conclusion: Rabah bar Yirmeyah heard this from Rav Chama bar Gurya, who learned it from Rav.

5)WE MAY NOT BUILD COURTS FOR THEM

(a)(Mishnah): We may not build...

(b)(Rabah bar bar Chanah): There are three types of Basilki (buildings): of Nochri kings, bathhouses, and storehouses.

(c)Version #1 (Rava): Only those of kings are forbidden (they judge capital cases there).

(d)Version #2 (Rava): All of them are permitted.

(e)Question (Mishnah): We may not build with them Basilkiyos, courthouses, stadiums, or scaffolds.

(f)Answer: It means, we may not build with them Basilkiyos (buildings) of courthouses, stadiums, or scaffolds.

(g)(Beraisa): When R. Eliezer was seized (for teaching Torah, they were going to force him to serve idolatry), the officer asked him 'why do you engage in such idle things?'

1.R. Eliezer: The Judge (Hash-m) is correct.

2.The officer (he thought R. Eliezer referred to him): Since you accepted my words, I swear that I will free you.

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