1) TOSFOS DH L'PARSAI

תוספות ד"ה לפרסאי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that our Gemara's reasoning can be applied today as the Halachah.)

ונראה דאנן נמי שרינן השתא למכור לעובדי כוכבים כלי זיין מהאי טעמא

(a) Opinion: It appears that we are also permitted nowadays to sell weapons to Nochrim on the basis that they will use them to protect us (if this is the case).

2) TOSFOS DH MARVI'IN

תוספות ד"ה מרביעין

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that this does not only apply to a female.)

ובזכר נמי יכול להרביעו על כמה נקבות

(a) Explanation: A male can also be used to have relations with many females.

3) TOSFOS DH ALMA

תוספות ד"ה אלמא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that not accepting a male and not giving birth are two very separate things.)

לאו משום דסבר טריפה אינה יולדת דבפרק אלו טריפות (חולין דף נז:) בעי למימר לר' יהודה דיולדת

(a) Implied Question: This (the Gemara's statement that a Treifah will not accept a male) is not because Rebbi Yehudah holds that a Treifah does not give birth, as in Chulin (57b) we want to suggest that according to Rebbi Yehudah a Treifah does give birth. (If it gives birth, how can we say it does not accept a male?)

אלא דלא מקבלת זכר וכדמשמע לישנא מדלא קאמר אלמא דלא ילדה

(b) Answer: Rather, he literally means it does not accept a male. (However, if it had been impregnated before it became a Treifah, it could give birth.) This is implied by our Gemara, which does not deduce that a Treifah does not give birth.

4) TOSFOS DH ELA

תוספות ד"ה אלא

(SUMMARY: Tosfos asks why the Gemara does not equate Rebbi's opinion to that of the Rabbanan regarding birds carrying themselves.)

קשה לימא דלית ליה חי נושא את עצמו בעופות כרבנן

(a) Question: This is difficult. Why don't we say that Rebbi does not hold of the concept, "Chai Nosei Es Atzmo" - "A living being carries itself" regarding birds, just as the Rabbanan do not hold of this regarding birds?

וי"ל מדאסר רבי משום תורת כלי זיין משמע דאפילו המיוחד לרכיבת אדם דמודו כ"ע דחי נושא את עצמו וא"כ תורת בהמה גסה מאי היא וג' מחלוקות בדבר

(b) Answer: Being that Rebbi forbids the sale of a horse because of the weapon aspect (that a horse can be used in battle), the implication is that even a horse that is specifically for people (riding it) is forbidden, despite the fact that everyone agrees that a living being carries itself. If so, what is the "large animal" reason to forbid its sale? It is therefore apparent that there are three different opinions. (The Maharam explains that Ben Beseirah even permits a horse that is specifically for birds. Rebbi even forbids a horse that is for people to ride on it. The Rabbanan forbid a horse that is for birds, but permit a horse that is for people. However, see Rashash who notes that Tosfos in Shabbos argues that the Chachamim also forbid the sale of all types of horses to Nochrim.)

5) TOSFOS DH AVAL HAI

תוספות ד"ה אבל האי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why we do not give a different reason why one cannot sell a fattened ox to Nochrim.)

תימה ל"ל האי טעמא תיפוק ליה משום דאי משהי ליה לפיטום אתי למימר כחוש מכרו לו כי היכי דגזרי רבנן בשבורה דלא ליתי למימר שלימה מכרה לו

(a) Question: This is difficult. Why do we require the reason that if the fattened animal is left around it will be used for work? We should derive that the reason is because if he leaves it around, people will end up saying that he sold it when it was skinny. This is similar to the Rabbinic decree regarding an animal with a broken limb that it still cannot be sold to Nochrim, as we do not want people to say that he sold it when it was healthy.

וי"ל דודאי בשבורה יש לגזור דכיון דרבנן אית להו מרביעין עליה זכר א"כ משהה לו זמן מרובה אבל בזמן מועט דפיטום לית לן למיגזר אי לאו טעמא דחזי למלאכה

(b) Answer: It is certainly understandable to make this decree regarding an animal with a broken limb. Being that the Rabbanan hold that a male animal could mate with it, he will keep it around for along time. However, in the small amount of time that he keeps an animal that is fattened, there is no reason to make a decree if it were not for the reason that it is fit to work when it becomes skinny.

6) TOSFOS DH AVAL HAI D'L'SHECHITAH

תוספות ד"ה אבל האי דלשחיטה

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains what "this is used for slaughter" excludes.)

לאו דוקא נקט האי דהא בסתם שוורים גופייהו אמרינן אימור לשחיטה זבינהו

(a) Implied Question: The Gemara does not specifically mean, "this (animal is for slaughter)" as regarding regular oxen we also say that they are presumably sold for slaughter. (Why, then, does the Gemara say this is for slaughter? What is it excluding?)

אלא להכי נקט הכי דאתא לאפוקי בהמה גסה דמתני' דמיירי בבהמה טמאה נקט הכי אבל בבהמה טהורה תלינן בשחיטה ואע"ג דסתם שוורים נמי לרדיא זביני

(b) Answer: Rather, it says this to exclude the large animal discussed by our Mishnah, which is an unkosher animal. However, every kosher animal is presumed to be used for slaughter, even though regular oxen are also used for plowing.

16b----------------------------------------16b

7) TOSFOS DH ARI SHAVUR

תוספות ד"ה ארי שבור

(SUMMARY: Tosfos and Rashi argue whether or not Rav Ashi's statement is solely according to Rebbi Yehudah.)

פ"ה דאתיא כר' יהודה דשרי בשבורה אבל רבנן דאסרי בשבורה אסרי נמי בארי

(a) Explanation#1: Rashi explains that Rav Ashis statement is according to Rebbi Yehudah, who permits selling an animal with a broken limb. However, the Rabbanan who forbid selling an animal with a broken limb also forbid selling a lion.

ור"י אומר דאפילו כרבנן נמי אתיא דעד כאן לא אסרי רבנן אלא משום דאתי למימר שלימה מכרה לו אבל בארי לא שייך האי טעמא דלעולם שבור הוא אצל מלאכה

(b) Explanation#2: The Ri says that Rav Ashi's statement could even be according to the Rabbanan. The Rabbanan only forbade selling an animal with a broken limb because one might think that the Jew sold it to the Nochri when it was healthy (and it only broke its limb after it was in the possession of the Nochri). However, regarding a lion this reason does not apply, as a lion is always considered "broken" regarding doing work.

8) TOSFOS DH MASKIF

תוספות ד"ה מתקיף

(SUMMARY: Tosfos notes that Rav Nachman's question is applicable to the first time these answers were quoted in our Gemara.)

פר"י דאשנויא דלעיל נמי קאי

(a) Explanation: The Ri explains that Rav Nachman's question is also on these answers when they were quoted earlier in our Gemara.

ויש ספרים שהוא כתוב נמי לעיל ובחנם נמחק

(b) Text: There are indeed Sefarim that have the text that Rav Nachman asked this question earlier as well, and there is indeed no reason to have erased this text from our Gemara.

9) TOSFOS DH RAV ASHI

תוספות ד"ה רב אשי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains how Rav Ashi answers Rav Nachman's question.)

אומר ר"י דדייק נמי מן המשנה דארי חיה גסה הוא

(a) Explanation: The Ri says that the Gemara means that Rav Ashi deduces from the Mishnah that a lion is categorized as a large undomesticated animal (thereby answering Rav Nachman's question).

דדוקא ארי שהוא שבור אצל מלאכה דאי ס"ד דחיה דקה הוא וחיה דקה נמי אסורה א"כ ה"ל למימר סתם כל חיה שיש בה נזק לרבים אין מוכרין

1. Explanation (cont.): This is because the Mishnah separately lists a lion, due to the fact that it cannot do work. If it is a small undomesticated animal (which does not do work) and it is also forbidden, the Mishnah should have merely said, "Any undomesticated animal that can damage the public should not be sold." (Being that the Mishnah made a separate point that we do not sell lions, the implication is that it is specifically referring to large undomesticated animals. It is saying that even large undomesticated animals that do not work cannot be sold to Nochrim, even if they do not pose a threat to the public.)

10) TOSFOS DH BIMOSIYOS

תוספות ד"ה בימוסיאות

(SUMMARY: Tosfos quotes three opinions regarding whether the correct text of our Gemara is Bimosiyos or Dimosiyos.)

פ"ה בימה של אבן אחת שמקריבין עליהן זבחים לעבודת כוכבים וקורין להם אלט"ר וכו' ולהכי שרו דלא הוו אלא תשמיש לתשמישי עבודת כוכבים

(a) Opinion#1: Rashi explains that a platform composed of one rock upon which people offer sacrifices for idols is called an altar etc. They are permitted because they are only an item that is used for an item used for idolatry.

וקשיא דלא משתמיט דקרי לבימוס משמש למשמשיה אלא משמש לעבודת כוכבים עצמה קרי בימוס כדתנן לקמן פרק כל הצלמים (דף מז:) אבן שחצבה תחילה לבימוס ופ"ה לשם מקום מושב עבודת כוכבים עצמה ועובדי הבימוס כעובדי עבודת כוכבים עצמה

(b) Question#1: This is difficult, as it cannot be that such a platform is used for an item that is used for idolatry, rather it is itself is used for idolatry. This is as the Mishnah states later (47b) that a stone that was carved to be used as a Bimus etc. Rashi there explains that this is a stone upon which the idol itself sits. Those who serve the Bimus are like those who serve the idol itself.

ואמר נמי (לקמן נג:) בימוסיאות של מלכי עובדי כוכבים אסורין מפני שמעמידין עליהם עבודת כוכבים בשעה שהמלכים עובדין אלמא ממש תשמיש עבודת כוכבים עצמה הוא

1. Question#1 (cont.): The Gemara (53b) also says that Bimosiyos of idolatrous kings are forbidden, because they place upon them idols when the kings worship. This implies that it is literally something that is used for the idol itself.

ועוד דנהי נמי שהוא משמש למשמשי עבודת כוכבים אמאי מותר לבנות עמהן וכי הוא סברא להתיר לבנות עמהן מקום שיקטירו עליו במחתה לעבודת כוכבים

(c) Question#2: Additionally, even if it is something that is used for an item used for idolatry, why should it be permitted to build such a thing with idolaters? Is it logical to permit building an altar with them so they can sacrifice with a fire-pan sacrifices (or incense) to an idol?!

לכך נראה לר"י כגירסת הערוך שפירש דימוסיאות בדל"ת והוא לשון מרחצאות כדאמרי' בשבת פרק חבית (דף קמז:) אסור לישב בקרקעיתה של דימוסיאות מפני שמעמלת ומרפאה וכן אמר (שם) מיא דדמוסיא וחמרא דפרוגיתא קפחו עשרת השבטים ואמרי' נמי במדרש למחר אני פותח להם מרחצאות ודימוסיאות

(d) Opinion#2: The Ri therefore understands that the correct text is that of the Aruch, who has the text of "Dimosiyos" with a Daled. This is a term meaning (a type of) bathhouses, as stated in Shabbos (147b) that it is forbidden to sit on the floor of Dimosiyos on Shabbos, because they cause the skin to become hot and heal. The Gemara there similarly says, the water of the Damusya (bathhouses) and the wine of Frugisa beat the Ten Tribes. The Medrash also says, "Tomorrow I will open for them bathhouses and Dimosiyos."

ובפירוש רשב"ם כתב דימוסיאות ופירש שהוא בנין שלא לצורך עבודת כוכבים

(e) Opinion#3: The Rashbam also has the text "Dimosiyos," and explains that these are buildings that are not used for idolatry.

11) TOSFOS DH DIMUS

תוספות ד"ה דימוס

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains and proves that "Dimus" means mercy.)

פי' ברחמי עבודת כוכבים שלו נשבע כי דימוס לשון רחמים הוא

(a) Explanation: The word Dimus refers to the mercy of the judge's idol, as Dimus is a term meaning mercy.

כדאמרי' בירושלמי דשביעית (פ"ט) במעשה דר"ש בן יוחי אחר דנפק מן מערתא חמא חד צד עופות שמע בת קלא כד הוה אמרה דימוס הוה פסגה פי' היה העוף נמלט מן הפח וכד הוה אמרה ספיקולא הוה מתצדא פי' הוה מתלכדא בפח קולא הוא תרגום של פח אלמא משמע דדימוס הוא לשון רחמים

(b) Proof: This is as the Yerushalmi in Shevi'is states (ch.9) with the incident regarding Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai that happened after he came out of the cave (where he was hiding due to the persecution of the Romans). He saw someone who was hunting birds. When he heard a Bas Kol say, "Dimus" there was a Pisgah. This means that when the word Dimus was said, the bird flew away from the trap. When the Bas Kol said, "Spikula" the bird would be trapped in the trap. [The word Kula is the Targum of Pach.] This implies that Dimus is a term of mercy.

ושמעת מן הדא אפי' ציפורא קלילא מבלעדי שמיא לא מתצדא כל שכן בר איניש

(c) Observation: The Yerushalmi continues that Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai remarked that we see from here that even a light bird would not be trapped without a declaration from Heaven. Certainly this is also true regarding a person!

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