AVODAH ZARAH 6 - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in honor of the birthday of Gila Linzer.

1)

NOACH WAS NOT A TEREIFAH

(a)

Question: Perhaps Noach was a Treifah!

(b)

Answer #1: This cannot be. The Torah calls him "Tamim".

1.

Question: Perhaps it means that he was Tamim (pure) in his ways!

2.

Answer: We already know that, for he is called a Tzadik.

3.

Question: Perhaps it means that he was Tamim in his ways and Tzadik in his deeds!

(c)

Answer #2: If Noach were a Treifah, the Torah would not say "Itach", to bring specifically animals that are Treifah!

(d)

Question: Since "Itach" excludes a Treifah, what do we learn from "Lechayos Zera"?

(e)

Answer: Had it said only "Itach", one might have thought that the animals are merely to accompany the people, and old or castrated animals are acceptable. "Lechayos Zera" teaches that they must be able to reproduce.

2)

BUSINESS BEFORE THEIR FESTIVALS

(a)

Question: Is the day of the festival included in the three days that one may not (Rashi - buy from or) sell to Nochrim?

(b)

Answer #1 (Mishnah - R. Yishmael): Three days before and three days after are forbidden.

1.

If three days includes the day of the festival, R. Yishmael counts the day of the festival twice!

(c)

Rejection: Really, it includes the day of the festival. He taught 'three days after' for parallel structure with 'three days before.'

(d)

Answer #2: Rav Tachlifa bar Avdimi taught that according to R. Yishmael, one may never do business with Nochrim who celebrate Yom Rishon.

1.

If three days includes the day of the festival, Wednesday and Thursday would be permitted!

(e)

Rejection: Surely, R. Yishmael forbids three days in addition to the day of the festival. The question is according to Chachamim.

(f)

Answer #3 (Ravina - Mishnah): These are the festivals (before which business is forbidden for three days): Kalanda, Satroniya, and Kartsim...

1.

(Rav Chanin bar Rava): Kalanda is an eight-day festival after Tekufas Teves (the winter solstice, i.e. the shortest day of the year). Satroniya is an eight-day festival before the Tekufah.

i.

A way to remember this is "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani" (the latter festival is listed first in the Mishnah).

2.

If 'three days' includes the day of the festival, then regarding eight-day festivals, the Mishnah should say that 10 days are forbidden!

(g)

Rejection: The Tana considers the whole festival like one day, so he says that three days are forbidden.

(h)

Answer #4 (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): Three days before their festivals...

1.

If 'three days' included the festival, the Tana would mention that the festivals themselves are forbidden, e.g. 'the festivals: three days are forbidden... ' (Rather, the Tana does not explicitly teach the festivals themselves, only the three previous days. We know the festivals themselves from a Kal va'Chomer).

2.

Question: Perhaps he taught 'three days before their festivals' to teach that the days after are permitted!

3.

Rejection: To do so, he could have said 'the festivals: three days before them... '

4.

Conclusion: The three days do not include the festival.

3)

THE REASON FOR THE PROHIBITION

(a)

Question: Why is it forbidden to do business with them?

1.

Are we concerned for Harvachah? (Rashi - if they profit, they will thank their idolatry. The Yisrael transgresses "Lo Yishama Al Picha" by causing them to mention the idolatry; R. Tam - if the Nochri has more animals, he is more likely to offer to idolatry);

2.

Or, if a Yisrael sells something that the Nochri will offer to idolatry, the Yisrael transgresses "v'Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" (by enabling him to sin)?

3.

Question: What difference does it make?

4.

Answer: If the Nochri already has an animal, 'Lifnei Iver' does not apply, but Harvachah does.

5.

Question: 'Lifnei Iver' applies even when he has his own animal!

i.

(Beraisa - R. Noson): "V'Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" forbids extending wine to a Nazir or a limb from a living animal to a Nochri.

6b----------------------------------------6b

ii.

Even though the Nazir or Nochri could take it himself, one who gives him transgresses!

6.

Answer: The case is, he is on the other side of a river, and he cannot reach it himself.

i.

Support: The Beraisa mentions extending it to him, but not 'giving' it.

4)

ONE WHO DID BUSINESS

(a)

Question: If one (Rashi - bought from or) sold to Nochrim before the festival, may he benefit from the (item or) money?

(b)

Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): No.

(c)

Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): Yes.

(d)

Version #1 Question (R. Yochanan - Beraisa): If one (bought from or) sold to Nochrim at festival time, he may not benefit from the (item or) money.

1.

Suggestion: This means if one (bought or) sold before the festival.

(e)

Answer: No, it means if he sold on the festival.

(f)

Version #2 Question (Reish Lakish - Beraisa): If one (bought or) sold on the festival, he may not benefit from it.

1.

Suggestion: This applies only on the festival, but not before it.

(g)

Answer: No. 'The festival' includes the days before it.

(h)

Support (for Reish Lakish - Beraisa): The Isur (prohibition) to (buy and) sell pertains only to things that will last (until the festival), but not to perishables;

1.

Even things that will last, if one (bought or) sold, it is permitted.

(i)

(Rav Zvid - Beraisa): Something that will not last we may sell to Nochrim. We may not buy it (Rashi; R. Tam - accept such a gift) from them.

5)

THINGS THAT WILL MAKE THEM REJOICE

(a)

On the day of his festival, a Min sent newly minted coins to R. Yehudah Nesi'ah.

1.

R. Yehudah Nesi'ah: If I accept them, he will thank his idolatry. If I do not accept them, he will bear enmity!

2.

Reish Lakish: Throw them in a pit when he is watching.

3.

R. Yehudah Nesi'ah: All the more so, he will bear enmity!

4.

Reish Lakish: I meant that you should make it look like it was accidental.

(b)

(Mishnah): One may not lend (objects) to them or borrow from them...

(c)

Question: Granted, lending is forbidden, due to Harvachah;

1.

Why is borrowing forbidden? This leaves him with less!

(d)

Answer #1 (Abaye): We decree not to borrow, less one come to lend.

(e)

Answer #2 (Rava): The Nochri will rejoice that the Yisrael needs him, and he will thank his idolatry.

(f)

(Mishnah): One may not lend money to them or borrow from them...

(g)

Question: Granted, lending is forbidden, due to Harvachah;

1.

Why is borrowing forbidden? This leaves him with less!

(h)

Answer #1 (Abaye): We decree not to borrow, less one come to lend.

(i)

Answer #2 (Rava): The Nochri will rejoice that the Yisrael needs him, he will thank his idolatry.

(j)

(Mishnah): One may not repay a loan owed to them or collect a loan from them...

(k)

Question: Granted, repaying is forbidden, due to Harvachah;

1.

Why is collecting forbidden? This leaves him with less!

(l)

Answer #1 (Abaye): We decree not to collect, less one repay.

(m)

Answer #2 (Rava): The Nochri will rejoice that he no longer owes, and he will thank his idolatry.

(n)

The Mishnah needed to teach all these cases.

1.

Had it taught only (buying and) selling, one might have thought that he will thank his idolatry due to his Harvachah, but not if we borrow objects; (Tosfos - even Abaye would not decree unless the Nochri rejoices somewhat);

2.

Had it taught only borrowing objects, one might have thought that this makes him feel important, but borrowing money merely pains him, for he fears lest he not get back his money;

3.

Had it taught only borrowing money, one might have thought that he is confident that he can force the Yisrael to pay back, and he rejoices now, but collecting causes him only pain.

4.

We needed to teach that in all cases, he rejoices and will thank his idolatry.

(o)

(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): One may collect loans from them, for this pains them...

(p)

Question: Does R. Yehudah really argue with Chachamim, who say that even though it pains them now, it gladdens them later?!

1.

Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A woman may not put plaster on her face on Chol ha'Mo'ed, for this is repulsive;

2.

R. Yehudah admits that if she can take it off during the festival it is permitted. Even though it pains her now, it gladdens her later.

(q)

Answer #1 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The laws of Chol ha'Mo'ed are an exception. All exertions that are allowed are for the sake of future enjoyment (on the festival).

(r)

Answer #2 (Ravina): (R. Yehudah holds that) a Nochri is always sad that he paid.

(s)

Our Mishnah is not like R. Yehoshua ben Korchah.

1.

(Beraisa - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): One may not collect (before the festival) a loan from them for which one has a document. He may collect a loan without a document, for this is saving one's money (lest the Nochri deny it later).

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