SANHEDRIN 101 (5 Cheshvan) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Reb Naftali ben Reb Menachem Mendel (Tuli Bodner) Z"L, who was Niftar 5 Cheshvan 5766. Tuli was an Ish Chesed and Ish Ma'aseh radiating joy whose Ahavas Yisrael knew no bounds. Dedicated by his son, Mordechai Bodner of Givat Mordechai, Yerushalayim.

[a - 53 lines; b - 56 lines]

1)[line 2]שדעתו רחבהSHE'DATO RECHAVAH- one who is forbearing. These type of people don't worry too much about the future. (Rashi; See Rashbam to Baba Basra 145b)

2)[line 4]שינוי וסת תחילת חולי מעייםSHINUY VESES, TECHILAS CHOLI ME'AYIM- a change in one's regular pattern [of eating] is the beginning of bowel diseases

3)[line 7]בבית משתאותB'VES MISHTAOS- party house (i.e. wedding celebration. This refers to an individual who is reclining over his cup of wine and recites verses aloud to amuse the guests. (Rashi). Others learn that one recites verses containing the names of distinguished guests for the purpose of praising those guests. (Ben Yehoyada). The Maharsha learns that saying these verses at an inappropriate time refers to a banquet not for religious purposes.

4)[line 8]חוגרת סקCHOGERES SAK- sackcloth

5)[line 10]לציםLETZIM- scoffers

6)[line 15]הגדותHAGADOS- aggados i.e. Midrash, as well as passages in the Mishnah and Gemara that contain stories, parables and other non-legal matters

7)[line 16]הלכות עצרת בעצרתHILCHOS ATZERES BA'ATZERES- the study of the laws of Shavuos on Shavuos.

8)[line 21]וברוקק בהUV'ROKEK BAH- and he spit on it. This is the way of people who do incantations and spit before the incantation. There are also incantations where they spit afterwards and use a name of G-d as the incantation.

9)[line 24]סכין וממשמשיןSACHIN UM'MASHMESHIN- anoint and massage

10)[line 25]לחישת נחשים ועקרביםLECHISHAS NECHASHIM V'AKRABIM- make incantations to ward off snakes and scorpions

11)[line 25]ומעבירין כלי על גב העיןU'MA'AVIRIN KELI AL GAV HA'AYIN- and one may pass a vessel over the eye on Shabbos (if one's eye hurts). One may place a cold metal utensil on an aching eye to cool it or to encircle the eye with a ring or other utensil to ease the pain. Since one is allowed to do this with a metal object and not with crushed herbs or other medicines, the Rabbis did not make a decree on this on Shabbos. (Yad Ramah)

12)[line 27]בכלי הניטלBICHLI HA'NITAL- with a vessel that one is allowed to move on Shabbos

13)[line 28]ואין שואלין בדבר שדים בשבתV'EIN SHOALIN BIDVAR SHEDIM BA'SHABBOS- one is not allowed to inquire demons on Shabbos. It was a custom for those who lost property to inquire of demons as to the whereabouts of the missing articles. (Rashi)

14)[line 32]דאיבלע ברזאD'IBLA V'ARZA- he was swallowed by a cedar tree

15)[line 33]פקע ארזא ופלטיPAKA ARZA U'FALTEI - the cedar tree broke or blew up and discharged him

16][line 35] שרי שמן ושרי ביצים - it is permissible to ask demons via oil or eggs

17)[line 36]שמכזביןSHEMCAZVIN- that (the demons) lie

18)[line 37]אושפיזאUSHPIZA- an inn

19)[line 37]מחא במנאMISHCHA B'MANA- oil in a vessel

20)[line 37]שף נפקן ליה צימחי באפיהSHAF NAFKAN LEI TZIMCHI B'APEI- he anointed himself and boils erupted on his face

21)[line 38]זיקא דחמת קא חזינאZIKA DA'CHAMAS KA HAZINA- I see the spirit of that demon whose name is Chamas here on your face? Yad Ramah learns that Chamas was a sorcerer so the woman claimed that she saw an evil spirit conjured up by the sorcerer Chamas.

22)[line 39]ואיתסיV'ITASI- and he was healed

23)[line 42]חמה עזהCHAMA AZA- great anger i.e. Rabbi Eliezer was speaking of himself, indicating to his students that G-d was angry at him and he therefore caused himself to suffer a severe illness. (Rashi). The Maharsha objects because Rabbi Eliezer stated that there was anger in the world. This means that G-d's anger was directed at these students.

24)[line 45]ואין שמנו מבאישV'EIN SHAMNU MAVISH- and his oil did not become rancid

25)[line 45]ואין דובשנו מדבישV'EIN DUVSHANO MADBISH- and his honey does not spoil

26)[line 49]מגלגל חמהMIGALGAL CHAMAH- the wheel of the sun

27)[line 52]סמכוניSAMCHUNI- support me i.e. help me sit up

28)[line 53]"בן שתים עשרה שנה מנשה במלכו וחמשים וחמש שנה מלך בירושלים ושם אמו חפצי בה""BEN SH'TEIM-ESREI SHANAH MENASHEH BE'MOLCHO, VE'CHAMISHIM-VE'CHAMESH SHANAH MALACH BI'YERUSHALAYIM; VE'SHEIM IMO CHEFTZI-VAH" (The Wicked King Menasheh- Melachim 1, 21:1) "Menasheh was twelve when he became king, and he reigned for fifty-five years in Yerushalayim. The name of his mother was Cheftzi-Bah"

29)[line 53]"ויעש הרע בעיני ה' כתועבת הגוים אשר הוריש ה' מפני בני ישראל""VAYA'AS HA'RA BE'EINEI HASH-M, KE'SO'AVOS HA'GOYIM ASHER HORISH HASH-M MIPNEI B'NEI YISRAEL" (Melachim 2, 21:2)

(a)The Navi says, "And he did what was evil in the eyes of Hash-m, akin to abominations of the nations that Hash-m dispossessed before the B'nei Yisrael"

(b)The Navi presents us with the following list of the evil deeds that Menasheh perpetrated - He rebuilt the Bamos that his father Chizkiyahu had destroyed, built Mizb'chos to Ba'al; He planted an Asheirah, and prostrated himself to all the Hosts of the Heaven. Moreover, he constructed Mizb'chos in honor of all the Hosts of Heaven and placed them in the Courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash. In addition, he passed his son through the fires of Molech, and practiced in many kinds` of witchcraft and sorcery. He did this deliberately to anger Hash-m. He also manufactured an image for the Asheirah that he planted and placed it in the Beis-ha'Mikdash. Worse than that, he led Yisrael astray to the point that they became worse than the nations that they had replaced, and caused the whole of Yehudah to sin as well.

(c)He was also guilty of spilling innocent blood, even going so far as to kill his own grandfather Yeshayah ha'Navi. There too, the people followed his example, and Yerushalayim became filled with murder 'from one end to the other'.

(d)As a result of Yehudah's numerous sins, Hash-m sent through the Nevi'im who prophesied at that time (Yo'el, Nachum and Chavakuk) that He decided to destroy Yerushayim just as He had destroyed Yisrael, and to deliver His people into the hands of their enemies who would destroy them.

101b----------------------------------------101b

30)[line 6]"וידבר ה' אל מנשה ואל עמו ולא הקשיבו. ויבא ה' עליהם את שרי הצבא אשר למלך אשור וילכדו את מנשה בחחים ויאסרהו בנחשתים ויוליכהו בבלה""VAYEDABER HASH-M EL MENASHEH VE'EL AMO, VE'LO HIKSHIVU. VAYAVEI HASH-M ALEIHEM ES SAREI HA'TZAVA ASHER LA'MELECH ASHUR, VAYILK'DU ES MENASHEH BA'CHOCHIM, VA'YA'ASRUHU BA'NECHUSHTAYIM VAYOLICHUHU BAVELAH" (The Capture of King Menasheh - Divrei-ha'Yamim 2, 22:10/11).

(a)The Navi says, "And Hash-m spoke to Menasheh and to his people, but they did not listen. So Hash-m brought against them the officers of the King of Ashur's army; they captured Menasheh with hunting-hooks and they led him bound in chains to Bavel

(b)When Menasheh and the people ignored Hash-m's pleas to mend their ways, Hash-m sent the Assyrian army against them. They captured him with hunting-hooks and brought him in chains to Bavel. There, the Medrash explains, they tortured him mercilessly. They placed him inside a large metal caldron with holes, and lit a fire around the caldron. Menasheh began to pray to every god that he knew; when he received no reply, in desperation, he remembered Hash-m, to whom he turned and prayed. Hash-m answered his prayers and returned him to Yerushalayim and to his throne. (See also above 90a Menasheh Does Teshuvah).

30)[line 15]בעלילהBA'ALILAH- with craftiness. Rather than davening with sincere prayer to attain their objectives, they each employed an irrefutable argument. (RASHI). The MAHARSHA learns that when Rashi explains it means craftiness, he refers to the strength of their arguments. Each argument could have been refuted, nonetheless, all three were convinced of their rightness. Had G-d not acceded to each, they would have questioned His conduct of human affairs.

29)[line 23]ובגבוליןUVAGVULIN- outside of the Beis Hamikdash

30)[line 23]ובלשון עגאU'VILSHON AGAH- a foreign language. Alternatively it literally means a circle, a place where people congregate and speak of profane matters. (RASHI) The ARUCH learns that AGAH means pronouncing G-d's Name in a joking manner.

31)[line 25]שריבע עםSHE'RIBA AM- that he lowered the nation.

32)[line 27]שניבטSHE'NIBAT- he beheld i.e. he beheld an omen but misunderstood its intent.

33)[line 29]שנתמכמך בבניןSHE'NISMACHMECH BA'BINYAN- that he was crushed in the building. How did such an evil person live (as Michah) merit to live for so many centuries (from the time of the Exodus until the time of King David and Solomon) (Yad Ramah; see Rashi)

34)[line 32]ואיצטגניני פרעהV'ITZTAGNINEI PAR'OH- Par'oh's astrologers

35)[line 33]מאמתוME'AMASO- his male organ

36)]line 41] מי מריבהMEI MERIBAH- the waters of strife i.e. that the astrologers saw the omen that Moshe would be undone by water but they misinterpreted it.

37)[line 42]"אחר הדבר הזה לא שב ירבעם מדרכו הרעה וישב ויעש מקצות העם כהני במות החפץ יצלא את ידו ויהי כהני במות. ויהי בדבר הזה לחטאת בית ירבעם ולהכחיד ולהשמיד מעל פני האדמה"(The Decision to Destroy Yeravam - "ACHAR HA'DEVARIM HA'EILEH, LO SHAV YERAVAM MI'DARKO HA'RA'AH, VAYASHAV VAYA'AS MIKTZOS HA'AM KOHANEI BAMOS, HE'CHAFETZ YEMALEI ES YADO, VIY'HI KOHANEI BAMOS. VAYEHI BA'DAVAR HA'ZEH LE'CHATAS BEIS YERAV'AM U'LEHACH'CHID U'LEHASHMID ME'AL P'NEI HA'ADAMAH" (Melachim 1, 13:33/34)

(a)The Navi says, "Following this incident, Yeravam did not repent from his evil ways, and he carried on appointing commoners as priests of the Bamos; whoever so desired could inaugurate himself and become a priest of the Bamos. "This matter became a source of punishment for the house of Yerav'am to eradicate it and to destroy from the face of the earth"

(b)Despite the incident described earlier in the chapter (where Yerav'am's arm became paralyzed and the Mizbe'ach split [see 'Ido ha'Navi and Yerav'am's Mizbe'ach', Yevamos 50a]), Yerav'am failed to learn a lesson from the miracle that he witnessed there, and continued with his evil ways.

(c)Chazal however, attribute Hash-m's decision to destroy him to the episode where Hash-m seized him by his clothes and promised him that if he would do Teshuvah, then He, Yerav'am and David would walk together in Gan Eden. When he declined the offer, after Hash-m told him that David would be the leader of the triumvirate (and not he, Yeravam), Hash-m made His decision.

38)[line 44]"וזה הדבר אשר הרים יד במלך שלמה בנה את המלוא סגר את פרץ עיר דוד אביב""VE'ZEH HA'DAVAR ASHER HEIRIM YAD BA'MELECH; SHLOMOH BANAH ES HA'MILO SAGAR ES PERETZ IR DAVID AVIV")Yeravam Rebukes Shlomoh - Melachim 1, 11:27)

(a)The Navi says, "And this is the matter in which he rebelled against the king; When Shlomoh built up the Millo, he closed the breach (deliberately) left by his father David"

(b)When Shlomoh noticed Yerav'am ben N'vat's diligence, he appointed him as chief tax-collector over the entire area of Beis Yosef (since he was from the tribe of Efrayim).

(c)David ha'Melech deliberately left breaches in the walls of Yerushalayim, allowing the people easy access to the City when visiting the Beis-ha'Mikdash on Yom-Tov. According to others, the easy access was for David to judge the people quickly and expediently.

(d)When Yerav'am ben N'vat saw that Shlomoh built the Millo, a large area in front of the wall (to comfortably settle the servants and valets of his wife), and blocked those breaches in the process, he rebuked him publicly for tending to his wife's needs at the expense of the people. Chazal explain that the public rebuke consisted of removing his Tefilin in front of the King.

(e)For having the guts to rebuke the King for his misdeeds, he was rewarded with the Crown. Immediately following this incident, the Navi describes how Achyah ha'Shiloni crowned him King over the Ten Tribes. He was punished however, for rebuking him publicly (as the Torah writes in Kedoshim "ve'Lo Sisa Alav Chet").

37)[line 46]אנגריא לבת פרעהANGARYA L'BAS PAR'OH - you closed up (the breaches) to levy a toll for Paroh's daughter.

(1) Solomon closed up all the breaches in the walls of Jerusalem. Anyone who wished to enter the city had to do so through one of the officially controlled gates, where a toll was levied.

(2) Solomon closed up all the gates of the city with the exception of one. Over this gate, he built a tower attached to Paroh's daughter's palace where she controlled who came in and out from the city.

(3) Solomon used to lock the doors of the Temple court and keep the keys. The Jews would have to wait until King Solomon awoke to begin the Temple service. (RASHI)

38)[line 47]שחלץ תפיליןSHE'CHALATZ TEFILIN- that he removed his tefilin

39)[line 47]גסות הרוחGASUS HA'RU'ACH- haughtiness

40)[line 48]"ויאמר ירבעם בלבו עתה תשוב הממלכה לבית דוד. אם יעלה העם הזה לעשות זבחים בבית ה' בירושלים ושב לב העם הזה אל אדניהם אל רחבעם מלך יהודה והרגני ושבו אל רחבעם מלך יהודה""VAYOMER YERAV'AM BE'LIBO 'ATAH TASHUV HA'MAMLACHAH LE'VEIS DAVID! IM YA'ALEH HA'AM HA'ZEH LA'ASOS ZEVACHIM BE'VEIS-HASH-M BI'YERUSHAYIM, VE'SHAV LEIV HA'AM HA'ZEH EL RECHAV'AM MELECH YEHUDAH; VAHARAGUNI VE'SHAVU EL RECHAV'AM MELECH YEHUDAH' "

(Yerav'am Sets up Two Golden Calves - Melachim 1, 12:26/27)

(a)The Navi says, "And Yerav'am thought to himself "Now the kingship will revert to the House of David! If this people will (be allowed to) go up to bring sacrifices in the House of Hash-m in Yerushalayim, then the hearts of this people will revert to Rechav'am, King of Yehudah; Then they will kill me and return to Rechav'am, King of Yehudah!"

40)[line 50]גמיריGEMIREI- he learned

41)[line 51]מורד במלכותMORED B'MALCHUS- (lit. rebellion against the king) treason

42)[line 51]"ויועץ המלך ויעש שני עגלי זהב ויאמר אלהם רב לכם מעלות ירושלים הנה אלהיקה ישראל אשר העלוך מארץ מצרים. וישם את האחד בבית קל ואת האחד נתן בדן""VAYIVA'ATZ HA'MELECH, VAYA'AS SH'NEI EGLEI ZAHAV, VAYOMER ALEIHEM 'RAV LACHEM ME'ALOS YERUSHALYIM; HINEI ELOHECHA YISRAEL ASHER HE'ELUCHA ME'ERTZ MITZRAYIM!' VAYASEM ES HA'ECHAD BE'VEIS-EIL VE'ES HA'ECHAD NASAN BE'DAN" (Melachim 1, 12:28/29)

(a)The Navi says, "And the King took counsel, and he constructed two golden calves, and he said to them [the people] "It is too far for you to go up to Yerushalayim. These are your gods Yisrael, who brought you up from the land of Egypt. And he set up one of them in Beis-Eil and the one he placed in Dan"

(b)After consolidating his position as king of the ten tribes, it occurred to Yerav'am that when he visited the Beis-ha'Mikdash for Hakheil (every eighth year), he would be obligated to stand in the Azarah like everybody else, whilst Rechav'am, King of Yehudah, would be permitted to sit down (for so Chazal have taught 'Only the kings of Yehudah are permitted to sit in the Azarah). When the people would see that, they would automatically demote him and reinstate Rechav'am as king of the entire nation. On the other hand, if he were to sit down as well, the men of Yehudah would accuse him of rebellion and kill him.

(c)And it was the fear of that happening that drove him. After that, he consulted his advisors to set up two Golden Calves, one in the north of his kingdom and one in the south.

(d)To justify his actions, he told the people that he put up the images to save them the long trek to Yerushalayim, and, following in the footsteps of the Eirev Rav in the Desert, he announced that these two images were the gods who brought them out of the Egypt.

42)[line 54]היןHEN- yes

43)[line 55]למפלחL'MIFLACH- to worship

44)[line 56]למינסינהו הוא דקא בעיL'MINASINHU HU D'KA BA'EI- to test us he asks this

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