BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[83a - 38 lines; 83b - 35 lines]
1) [line 1] ZARUS (AVODAH: ZARUS)
(a) While Benei Yisrael were in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt, HaSh-m chose the Leviyim to officiate in the Divine Service to replace the Bechoros, who had been the Divine servants until then (Bamidbar 3:12, 18:6). He then separated the family of Aharon to become the Kohanim, the ones actually responsible for the performance of the Divine Service, while the Leviyim were to be their helpers (ibid. 18:1-7, Devarim 18:1-5). Anyone other than a Kohen or a Levi is known as a "Zar," "stranger" with regard to the specific actions that may be performed only by the Kohanim or Leviyim.
(b) A Zar who performs certain parts of the Divine Service can be liable to the death penalty according to some of the Tana'im and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim according to others (Mishnah 81b, Gemara 84a). A Zar is prohibited to perform the actions mentioned in the Beraisa discussed by our Gemara, Daf 82b, but he is not liable to death.
2) [line 1] TUM'AH (AVODAH: TUM'AH)
(a) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service (see previous entry) must be Tahor in order to do so (except for a limited number of exceptions). The verse (Vayikra 22:2) commands the Kohanim to separate themselves from all Kodshim (consecrated items) while they are Temei'im.
(b) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service while he is Tamei is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (according to the Beraisa brought by our Sugya, Daf 83a. The Mishnah - Daf 81b - cites the practice of the Kohanim to kill a Kohen who willingly disgraces the Avodah by performing it b'Tum'ah.) A Kohen who is Tamei is prohibited to perform the actions mentioned in the Beraisa discussed by our Gemara, Daf 82b, but he is not liable to death.
3) [line 2] MECHUSAR BEGADIM
(a) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service must wear the proper Bigdei Kehunah in order to do so.
(b) The Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol which are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) A Kohen who performs the Divine Service while he is not dressed in the proper Bigdei Kehunah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as learned from the verse in Shemos 29:9 (Daf 83b), since they are considered like Zarim (see above, entry #1). A Kohen who is not wearing the proper Bigdei Kehunah is prohibited to perform the actions mentioned in the Beraisa discussed by our Gemara, Daf 82b, but he is not liable to death.
4) [line 2] RECHUTZ YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM
(a) It is a Mitzvas Aseh for the Kohanim to wash their hands and feet whenever they enter the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash or when they do any Avodah (Divine service), as it states in Shemos 30:19-21, "v'Rachatzu Aharon u'Vanav Mimenu..." (Daf 83b).
(b) A Kohen places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot, and bends over. Another Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor on his hands and feet (or, if he is alone, he places his hands and feet under the faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing. If a Kohen transgresses intentionally, and performs an Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and the Avodah is invalid (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).
(c) A Kohen has to wash his hands and feet only once every day, as long as he makes sure that they did not become Teme'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether a Kohen who did Avodah all night is required to wash his hands and feet again in the morning. A Kohen who has not washed his hands and feet is prohibited to perform the actions mentioned in the Beraisa discussed by our Gemara, Daf 82b, but he is not liable to death.
5) [line 9] U'KERA ASMACHTA B'ALMA - and the verse is merely an "Asmachta" (ASMACHTA)
(a) At times, when Chazal make a Derashah (extrapolate a Halachah or other teaching) from a word in the Torah, it happens that the Halachah or teaching is not mid'Oraisa at all, but rather mid'Rabanan. When this happens, the Gemara usually states that the Halachah is mid'Rabanan, and "Kera Asmachta b'Alma," i.e. that the verse is only cited as a "support" for the Halachah mid'Rabanan, but its source is not actually from the Torah. (TOSFOS to Bava Basra 66b DH Michlal d'She'ivah writes that in many instances, Derashos of Chazal in the Midreshei Halachah, such as Toras Kohanim, which appear to be from the Torah, are only Asmachta'os.)
(b) A second type of Asmachta applies even to a Halachah which actually is mid'Oraisa. When Chazal find a hint in the Torah to a Halachah that has its basis in the Oral Tradition, they call this an Asmachta as well (Eruvin 5a, Chulin 77a).
(c) The Rishonim argue as to the reason why Chazal, in these instances, used verses to support their teachings.
1. From the words of the RAMBAM (Introduction to his Perush ha'Mishnayos) it appears that Asmachta'os are only mnemonic devices. (It is possible that he writes this only with regard to the latter type of Asmachta, Asmachta'os for Isurei Torah.)
2. MAHARIL (in Likutei Maharil) writes that Chazal used the device of Asmachta in order to make people regard certain Halachos mid'Rabanan as if they were actually mid'Oraisa, so that they should not treat them lightly.
3. The RITVA (to Rosh Hashanah 16a, see Be'er ha'Golah of the MAHARAL, Be'er #1) states that when Chazal present an Asmachta, it means that the Torah meant to suggest that it is fitting to implement such a Halachah, but that it did not choose to make it obligatory. The Torah empowered the Chachamim to enact it should the need for it arise. Similarly, the SHELAH (in Torah she'Be'al Peh, entry titled "Rabanan") writes that when the Chachamim utilized a hint from a verse, it means that they learned a particular approach of reasoning from this verse. Accordingly, it appeared to them that there was a need to decree this particular Halachah.
4. The MESHECH CHOCHMAH (Parshas Shoftim) claims that when Chazal present an Asmachta, it means that after Chazal instituted a particular Halachah or enacted a particular decree, they studied the Torah and found that the Torah had already hinted to that future decree in its eternal wisdom.
(d) There are those who write that a Halachah mid'Rabanan that is learned from an Asmachta, and which has a hint in the apparent meaning of the verses, is more stringent than an Isur mid'Rabanan for which an Asmachta from the Torah is not offered. These Halachos were given the status of Halachos of the Torah in certain respects, for example, with regard to the requirement to be stringent in the case of a Safek (PRI MEGADIM, Introduction to Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 1:2:d)
6) [line 10] ELU SHEB'MISAH (MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM / KARES)
(a) Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b) One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c) The commentaries explain that there are two major differences between Kares and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see TOSFOS to YEVAMOS 2a DH Eshes Achiv; RABEINU YONAH in Sha'arei Teshuvah, 3:6; TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 9:6):
1. One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2. When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there). (See, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
3. Some add that when punished with Kares, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute -- see Insights to Yevamos 73:2.
(d) For a number of specific sins, the Torah assigns a form of Kares in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is not granted a portion in the World to Come (Sanhedrin 64b).
7) [line 11] HA'OCHEL ES HA'TEVEL - one who eats Tevel (TERUMOS AND MA'ASROS)
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given (a single grain exempts the entire batch), the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(d) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(e) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
8) [line 11] KOHEN TAMEI SHE'ACHAL TERUMAH TEHORAH
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b) A Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah that is Tahor is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as is learned from the verse in Vayikra 22:9 (as our Sugya brings at the end of this Amud).
9) [line 12] ZAR SHE'ACHAL ES HA'TERUMAH - a non-Kohen who ate Terumah (TASHLUMEI TERUMAH)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b) If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei Terumah). He returns the amount of Terumah that he ate to the Kohen who owned the Terumah (see Insights to the Daf, Pesachim 32). In addition, he is fined another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of what he ate). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2), and is not necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.
(c) If the person ate Terumah in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking olive oil, he only pays the value of the Terumah that was destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not the laws of Tashlumei Terumah).
(d) A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally) pays the value of the Terumah destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not Tashlumei Terumah), and incurs the punishment of Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (according to the Beraisa brought by our Sugya, Daf 83a. According to Rav -- Gemara Daf 83b -- he is punished with lashes).
10) [line 12] ZAR SHE'SHIMESH
See above, entry #1.
11) [line 13] TAMEI SHE'SHIMESH
See above, entry #2.
12) [line 13] TEVUL YOM SHE'SHIMESH (AVODAH: TEVUL YOM)
(a) A Tevul Yom is a person or utensil that has been immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with regard to Terumah. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches do not become Teme'im. After the following nightfall, he or it becomes completely Tahor with regard to Terumah.
(b) If a Kohen Tevul Yom performs the Divine Service, he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as the Gemara learns from the verse in Vayikra 21:6 (Daf 83b).
13) [line 14] MECHUSAR BEGADIM
See above, entry #3.
14) [line 14] MECHUSAR KAPARAH
(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: 1. Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan - for a Zav, or a Mikvah - for the others), 2. He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and 3. a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
(c) If a Kohen who is Mechusar Kaparah performs the Divine Service, he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as the Gemara learns from the verse in Vayikra 12:8 (Daf 83b, see below, entry #36).
15) [line 14] SHE'LO RACHATZ YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM
See above, entry #4.
16) [line 15] SHESUYEI YAYIN
(a) It is forbidden to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash while one is under the influence of wine or anything intoxicating. The verse states, "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht Atah u'Vanecha Itach b'Vo'achem El Ohel Mo'ed v'Lo Samusu..." - "Do not drink wine or any other intoxicant, you (Aharon) and your descendants, when you come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and do not die [on account of it]..." (Vayikra 10:9). This applies if one drank a Revi'is of undiluted wine or more than a Revi'is of diluted wine.
(b) If a Kohen entered the Beis ha'Mikdash beyond the point where the Mizbe'ach begins during the time of the Avodah and performs Avodah while under the influence of wine, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Avodah that he performs is Pasul (disqualified). If he was under the influence of other intoxicants he has transgressed a Lav and receives Malkos. The Avodah that he does is Kosher. If he enters but does not perform any Avodah, whether under the influence of wine or other intoxicants, according to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Bi'as ha'Mikdash 1:15) he receives Malkos, while according to the RAMBAN (Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh 73) and other Rishonim, he is only prohibited to do so mid'Rabanan.
(c) It is forbidden for anyone (even a non-Kohen) to enter the Ezras Yisrael or beyond while intoxicated, even though one does not transgress a Lav for doing so (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #152).
17) [line 15] PERU'EI ROSH
(a) It is forbidden for any Kohen to perform the Divine Service if the hair on his head has grown for more than thirty days. The verse states, "v'Rosham Lo Yegalechu, u'Fera Lo Yeshalechu; Kasom Yichsemu Es Rosheihem." - "And they shall not shave their heads, nor let their hair grow unkempt; they shall trim [the hair of] their heads." (Yechezkel 44:20)
(b) If a Kohen who head is Paru'a performs the Divine Service, he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as the Gemara (Daf 83b) learns from the from the proximity of the above verse to the verse regarding Shesuyei Yayim (Yechezkel 44:21; see previous entry). However, he is not liable to death (Sanhedrin 22b).
18) [line 16] AREL - a Kohen whose brothers died as a direct result of circumcision and who therefore cannot be circumcised
19) [line 16] ONEN (ONEN: ISUR AVODAH)
(a) A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). Chazal (Zevachim 101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol (Vayikra 10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen (even the Kohen Gadol) may not eat Kodshim, Terumah and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b) For additional laws of Aninus, see Background to Bava Kama 110:7.
20) [line 16] YOSHEV - sitting. The Divine Service must be performed standing, as the Gemara (Daf 84a) learns from the verse in Devarim 18:5.
21) [line 17] BA'AL MUM - a Kohen with a physical blemish which renders him unfit to perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash
(a) It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). [According to the Rambam this is counted as two Lavin (#70 and 71). According to the Ramban they are counted as one Lav.]
(b) There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(c) If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah: 1. if he had a Mum that invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he is liable to Malkus if he did it b'Mezid (according to the Rabanan. Rebbi rules that he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.); 2. if he had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as ha'Mikdash 6:6); 3. if he had a Mum that only invalidates him because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkos and his Avodah is Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)
22) [line 18] HEZID BI'ME'ILAH (ME'ILAH)
(a) It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b) If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c) If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
23) [line 25] NOSAR
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire." (Vayikra 19:6).
(b) If someone eats Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah 215).
24) [line 27] TERUMAH CHUTZAH LA'ARETZ HUTRAH B'RABIM PEIROS PIGUL V'NOSAR - these words stand for the topics that are in common between one who eats Tevel and a Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah, as follows:
1. Terumah refers to the fact that Tevel that has Terumah mixed in it is compared to a case of a Kohen who is Tamei eating Terumah.
2. Chutzah La'aretz refers to the fact that both Tevel and Terumah do not apply in Chutz la'Aretz mid'Oraisa, while Nosar applied in Chutz la'Aretz while Benei Yisrael were in the desert and while there was no prohibitions of offering sacrifices on the Bamos (see Background to Sotah 4:15).
3. Hutrah refers to the fact that the prohibition against eating Tevel can be lifted ("Yesh Heter l'Isuro") by separating Terumos and Ma'asros. A Kohen who is Tamei also has a Heter l'Isuro by immersing in a Mikvah. Nosar, on the other hand, has no Heter l'Isuro.
4. b'Rabim refers to the fact that the words related to the word "Chilul" in both Tevel and Terumah are in the plural ("Rabim"), while the word related to the word "Chilul" in the verse about Nosar is in the singular.
5. Peiros refers to the fact that both Tevel and Terumah are fruits ("Peiros"), while Nosar usually is the remainder of animal Korbanos.
6, 7. Pigul and Nosar refer to the fact that the prohibitions of Pigul (see Background to Sanhedrin 52:22b) and Nosar (see above, entry #23) have nothing to do with Tevel or Terumah, while they do affect Nosar.
25) [line 29] PESUL OCHEL EIN LO HETER B'MIKVAH - these words stand for the topics that are in common between one who eats Tevel and one who eats Nosar, as follows:
1. Pesul Ochel refers to the fact that Tevel and Nosar have an intrinsic disqualification in the food itself, while in the case of a Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah, the disqualification is in the Kohen.
2. Ein Lo Heter b'Mikvah refers to the fact that immersing in a Mikvah will not help in the cases of Tevel and Nosar, while a Kohen who is Tamei merely needs to immerse in a Mikvah and wait until nightfall in order to regain the right to eat Terumah.
26) [line 30] HANACH NEFISHAN - these (Terumah Chutzah la'Aretz Hutrah b'Rabim Peiros Pigul v'Nosar) are more numerous
27) [line 34] "V'SHAMRU ES MISHMARTI V'LO YIS'U ALAV CHET..." - "They shall therefore keep my ordinance, lest they bear sin for it, [and die therefore, if they profane it; I, HaSh-m, do sanctify them.]" (Vayikra 22:9)
28) [line 5] "ANI HASH-M MEKADESHAM" HIFSIK HA'INYAN - the words "Ani HaSh-m Mekadesham" from the end of verse 9 separate the punishment of Misah [b'Yedei Shamayim] that is mentioned in that verse from the topic of the next verse, a non-Kohen who eats Terumah, and as such, Rav rules that he is punished with lashes
29) [line 7] MASNISA AD'RAV KA RAMIS? - You question Rav from [the ruling of] a Beraisa?
30) [line 7] RAV TANA HU U'FALIG! - Rav has the status of a Tana (a Sage of the Mishnah) and may hold a dissenting opinion against a Beraisa!
31) [line 12] "V'YINAZRU" - "and they shall separate themselves [from Terumah and Kodashim when they are Temei'im]" (Vayikra 22:2)
32) [line 18] GUF TAMEI MIKVAH B'RABIM - these words stand for the topics that are in common between a Kohen who is Tamei who performs the Divine Service and a Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah, as follows:
1. Guf refers to the fact that both of these cases involve a disqualification of the person ("Guf") of the Kohen, while Nosar involves a disqualification in the food.
2. Tamei refers to the fact that both of these cases involve a disqualification due to Tum'ah, while this is not the case with regard to Nosar.
3. Mikvah refers to the fact that in both cases the Kohen who is Tamei has a Heter l'Isuro by immersing in a Mikvah. Nosar, on the other hand, has no such Heter l'Isuro.
4. b'Rabim refers to the fact that the words related to the word "Chilul" in both cases are in the plural ("Rabim"), while the word related to the word "Chilul" in the verse about Nosar is in the singular.
33) [line 19] KODESH PENIM PIGUL V'NOSAR - these words stand for the topics that are in common between a Kohen who is Tamei who performs the Divine Service and one who eats Nosar, as follows:
1. Kodesh refers to the fact that both cases involve the Kodshim of the Beis ha'Mikdash, while a Kohen who is Tamei who eats Terumah does not involve the Kodshim of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
2. Penim refers to the fact that both cases involve Divine Service within ("bi'Fnim") the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, while Terumah is one of the "Kodshei ha'Gevul," the Matnos Kehunah that are given to the Kohanim in all of the boundaries of Eretz Yisrael
3, 4. Pigul and Nosar refer to the fact that both cases are affected by the prohibitions of Pigul (see Background to Sanhedrin 52:22b) and Nosar (see above, entry #23), while they have nothing to do with Terumah.
34) [line 25] U'MATU VAH - and there are those who lean to [citing it in the name of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon]
35) [line 26] "V'CHAGARTA OSAM AVNET [AHARON U'VANAV, V'SHAVASHTA LAHEM MIGBA'OS, V'HAYESAH LAHEM KEHUNAH L'CHUKAS OLAM...]" - "And you shall gird them with belts, [Aharon and his sons, and put the turbans on them; and the office of Kehunah shall be theirs for an everlasting statute...]" (Shemos 29:9)
36) [line 28] "V'CHIPER ALEHA HA'KOHEN V'TAHERAH" - "and the Kohen shall atone for her and she shall become Tehorah." (Vayikra 12:8) - This verse deals with a Yoledes, a woman after childbirth (see Background to Bava Basra 166:4). Before she brings the Korbanos that are required after having a child, she is known as a Mechuseres Kaparah. Only after she brings the Korbanos is she considered Tehorah, which proves that a Mechusar Kaparah is considered Tamei. From this we learn that a Kohen who is Mechusar Kaparah who performs the Divine Service is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, just like a Kohen who is Tamei.
37) [line 31] "YAYIN V'SHECHAR AL TESHT [ATAH U'VANECHA ITCHA B'VO'ACHEM EL OHEL MO'ED V'LO SAMUSU...]" - "Do not drink wine or any other intoxicant, [you (Aharon) and your sons, when you come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and do not die [on account of it]...]" (Vayikra 10:9)
38) [line 32] "[V']ROSHAM LO YEGALECHU, U'FERA LO YESHALECHU; [KASOM YICHSEMU ES ROSHEIHEM.]" - "And they shall not shave their heads, nor let their hair grow unkempt; [they shall trim [the hair of] their heads.]" (Yechezkel 44:20)
39) [line 32] "V'YAYIN LO YISHTU [KOL KOHEN B'VO'AM EL HE'CHATZER HA'PENIMIS.]" - "And they shall not drink wine, [any Kohen, when they enter the inner courtyard.]" (Yechezkel 44:21)
40) [last line] "KOL BEN NECHAR EREL LEV V'EREL BASAR LO YAVO EL MIKDASHI (L'SHARSENI)..." - "Any stranger with an uncircumcised heart or uncircumcised flesh shall not come into My holy place (to serve me)..." (Yechezkel 44:9) - Since this negative commandment is only written in the Nevi'im, it does not have the status of a negative commandment of the Torah, and the Kohen who transgresses it is not liable to Malkus. (The word "l'Sharseni" ("to serve me") does not appear in the verse and should be omitted from the text of the Gemara -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM to Sanhedrin 22:8)
Index to Background for Maseches Sanhedrin