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BAVA BASRA 166-167 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[166a - 20 lines; 166b - 18 lines]

1) [line 3] DAHAVA PERICHA - (a) fragments or flakes of gold (RASHI to Bava Metzia 70a); (b) pieces of broken golden utensils (TOSFOS to Kesuvos 67a, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)
[line 4] YAD BA'AL HA'SHTAR AL HA'TACHTONAH - the bearer of the document has the lower hand (and the debtor needs to pay him only the lesser value of the two possibilities)
[line 8] DINEREI - plural for Dinar. This word, when unmodified, refers to Dinars of gold, as the Gemara here explains (and proves from the Mishnah in Kerisus 8a).
[line 8] DINARIN - plural for Dinar. This word, when unmodified, refers to Dinars of silver, as the Gemara here explains (and proves from the Mishnah in Kerisus 8a).

[line 10] SAFEK CHAMESH LEIDOS - five questionable births (for which she is not certain whether she must bring a Korban). The questionable birth refers to a birth of a stillborn, where it is not clear whether it was a properly formed fetus that emerged (in which case she is obligated to bring the Korbenos Yoledes) or just an embryonic sack or placenta. (KORBAN YOLEDES)
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

[line 10] SAFEK CHAMESH ZIVOS - five questionable occasions of Tum'as Zavah. A questionable Tum'as Zavah refers to when a woman saw a flow of blood on three consecutive days, but she is in doubt whether it occurred during her days of Tum'as Nidah (in which case she does not have the status of a Zavah), or whether it occurred during her eleven days of Zivah (in which case she does have the status of a Zavah and must bring a Korban). (ZAVAH)
(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Kidushin 80:2b) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Bava Kama 24:5:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

[line 11] MEVI'AH KORBAN ECHAD - she brings one Korban
[line 11] V'OCHELES BI'ZEVACHIM - and she becomes permitted to eat the meat of Korbanos (see above, entries #4:a and #5:c)
[line 11] V'EIN HA'SHE'AR ALEHA CHOVAH - and the other Korbanos are not an obligation upon her to bring

[line 15] AMDU KINIM - the price of Kinim rose (KINIM)
(a) When a woman becomes Tehorah after being a Yoledes (a woman who gave birth; see above, entry #4) or a Zavah (see above, entry #5), she must bring a Korban (Kinei Yoldos or Kinei Zavos) to complete her purification process and to enable her to eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b) The Korban brought by a Yoledes includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings a Ken, i.e. two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a "Ken" (plural Kinim), which means "nest."
(c) The Korban brought by a Zav or a Zavah is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

[line 15] DINEREI ZAHAV - Dinars of gold (i.e. they became very expensive)
[line 16] HA'MA'ON HA'ZEH - I vow in the name of the One who dwells in this dwelling (the Beis ha'Mikdash)
[line 16] IM ALIN HA'LAILAH - that I shall not sleep tonight (lit. if I shall sleep tonight)
[line 17] AD SHE'YEHU B'DINARIN - until they (the Kinim) will be sold for Dinars of silver (i.e. a reasonable price)


[line 1] B'RIV'ASAYIM - [two birds could be bought] for two quarters of a silver Dinar (that is, each bird cost 1/4 of a silver Dinar) (RASHBAM; see also TOSFOS)
[line 4] CHANAN ME'CHANANI - (it seems that they were not careful in Kesuvos or Shtaros to use "Sofiyos," final letters, such as the final letter "Nun" that would have been evident in the name "Chanan" or "Anan" but does not appear in the name "Chanani" or "Anani" -- YOSEF DA'AS)
[line 5] MISRAMI - it happens to occur
[line 6] PALGEI DI'SHEMA - half of the name
[line 10] RUBA DI'SHEMA - a majority of the name
[line 11] SEFEL - a large bowl
[line 12] KEFEL - a Talis (lit. a folded item, referring to a Talis or a garment that is fit to "fold")
[line 14] CHAISHINAN LI'ZEVUV - we suspect that there was a fly (which caused the bottom part of the letter "Kuf" to be rubbed off, making it look like a "Samech" -- see TASHBETZ 1:50, cited by YOSEF DA'AS)
[line 15] SHIS ME'AH V'ZUZA - six hundred, and a Zuz
[line 15] SHALCHAH - he sent it (the question)
[line 16] ISTIREI - (a) Sela Tzuri coins (a Sela Tzuri is equal to four Zuz) (RASHBAM 167a; RASHI Sukah 22b); (b) Sela Medinah coins (a Sela Medinah is equal to half of a Zuz) (RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by RASHBAM and TOSFOS 167a; RABEINU TAM, cited by Tosfos here and in Sukah 22b). According to the Rashbam and Rashi, an Istira refers to a Sela Medinah only when it is modified with "Istira Peshiti." (See Midos v'Shi'urei Torah, C. P. Benish, Benei Brak, 5760, pp. 433-434) (For a table of equivalents of coins and amounts used in the Gemara, see Background to Bava Basra 165:24)
[line 17] PERITEI - copper Perutos, the smallest denomination of coins, equal to 1/192 of a Dinar (Zuz)
[last line] ASUCHEI MESACHAN LEHU - they would combine them into a higher denomination (for example, they would write 192 Perutos as 1 Dinar)

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