LUNGS THAT STUCK TO THE RIBS
(Rav Yosef bar Minyomi citing Rav Nachman): If a lung is stuck to the wall (of the rib cage), we are not concerned;
If blisters sprouted, we are concerned.
(Mar Yehudah): In both cases we are concerned.
Question: How do we check it?
Answer (Rava): One separates them with a sharp knife. If a wound is found on the wall, we attribute the blisters to it, and it is Kosher;
If not, we assume that there was a hole in the lung, it is Tereifah (even if no air escapes when we blow into the lung (perhaps a scab covers the hole) - Bach deletes this from the text).
Even if a wound was found on the wall, R. Nechemyah brei d'Rav Yosef would check it;
He would put the lung in lukewarm water and blow into it. If bubbles appear, it is Tereifah.
(Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Huna brei d'Rav Papa): I heard that R. Nechemyah's test was said regarding Rava's law.
(Rava): If a scab formed between two (non-adjacent) chambers of the lung, testing will not help. It is Tereifah;
R. Nechemyah would test with warm water (like above).
Objection (Rav Ashi): Granted, R. Nechemyah's test helps for a lung stuck to the wall. We can attribute the scab to a wound in the wall;
In Rava's case, no matter which chamber is wounded, it is Tereifah!
Question: Did Rav Nachman really say that if there are blisters, we are concerned?!
Contradiction (Rav Nachman): If the lung was punctured and the wall seals the wound, it is Kosher.
Answer (Ravina): Rav Nachman is Machshir only if the lung sticks to the flesh between ribs.
Question (Rav Yosef): Will you say that if the lung does not stick to the flesh between ribs, it is Tereifah, because there is a hole?!
If so, even if the lung sticks to the flesh, it is Tereifah!
(Beraisa): If a man's Ever was punctured, he is a Petzu'a Daka (and forbidden to marry). If the hole was sealed, he can bear children, hence (he is not a Petzu'a Daka, and) he may marry. This is a Pseul that can become permitted.
Suggestion: 'This' excludes our case. (The sealing does not make the animal Kosher.)
Answer (Ravina): No. It excludes a scab that forms on a hole in the lung. That does not help.
Question (Rav Ukva bar Chama): (Ravina says that the wall may seal a hole in a lung.) If the wall would be punctured there, it would be Tereifah. If so, a punctured wall should be listed with the other Tereifos in our Mishnah!
Counter-question: R. Yitzchak bar Yosef taught that if the liver seals a punctured gall bladder, it is Kosher. If the liver would be punctured there, it would be Tereifah. Why doesn't the Mishnah list a punctured liver?
Answer: You must say that the Mishnah does not list a punctured liver because the animal is Tereifah due to the gall bladder.
Answer: Here also, a punctured wall it is not listed because it is Tereifah due to the lung!
Question (Rabah bar bar Chanah): If blisters developed on the lungs, what is the law?
Answer (Shmuel): It is Kosher.
Rabah bar bar Chanah: I agree, but the Talmidim waver about this due to Rav Masnah's law;
(Rav Masnah): If a blister is full of puss, it is Tereifah. If it is full of clear water, it is Kosher.
Shmuel: That was said regarding the kidney.
R. Yitzchak bar Yosef wanted to see if R. Yirmeyah would buy meat of an animal whose lungs were full of blisters. R. Yirmeyah declined.
R. Yirmeyah: When people ask R. Yochanan about such animals, he tells them to ask R. Yehudah b'Rebbi Shimon, who has a tradition that it is Kosher. R. Yochanan himself is not inclined to say this.
(Rava): Rav Nachman saw meat for sale. There were large blisters on the lungs. He said nothing.
R. Ami and R. Asi saw meat for sale. There were giant, rock-hard blisters on the lungs. They said nothing.
A NEEDLE IN THE LUNGS OR LIVER
(R. Yochanan (and R. Elazar...)): If a needle is found in the lungs, it is Kosher;
(Reish Lakish (and...)): It is Tereifah.
Suggestion: They argue whether a Chisaron in the interior of the lungs ('consumed' by the needle) is problematic.
Rejection: No. All agree that this is not a problem;
Rather, R. Yochanan assumes that the needle came through the Kaneh (even a hole up to half the circumference of the Kaneh does not make it Tereifah);
Reish Lakish is concerned lest it came through the Veshet (and punctured the intestines or lungs on the way, making it Tereifah).
A case occurred in which a needle was found in a piece of the lungs. R. Ami wanted to be Machshir.
Question (R. Yirmeyah - Mishnah): If the lungs were punctured or Chaser (it is Tereifah).
Question: What is the case of Chaser?
Suggestion: The Chisaron extends to the outside.
Rejection: We already know this case, for it is punctured!
Answer: Rather, it is an internal Chisaron. The Mishnah says that it is Tereifah!
They asked R. Yitzchak Nafcha. Also he wanted to be Machshir. They asked R. Yirmeyah's question. R. Ami (Shitah Mekubetzes - R. Yitzchak) retracted, and ruled that it is Tereifah.
Question: R. Yochanan (and...) is (are) Machshir!
Answer (R. Ami or R. Yitzchak): That is when the lungs were whole. One could see that they were not punctured. Here, we see only part of the lungs. Perhaps another part was punctured,
Inference: If the lungs were in front of us and not punctured, it would be Kosher!
Question: Rav Nachman taught that if a branch of the lung is punctured, it is Tereifah!
Answer: That is when the puncture goes from one branch to another.
Question: Rav Nachman taught that if the small intestines were punctured where they touch, it is Kosher, for they protect each other.
Answer (Rav Ashi): One cannot compare Tereifos. A cut in one place makes an animal die, but it can survive a cut in another (seemingly worse) place!
A needle was found in the great chamber of the lungs. Reish Lakish (and...), who said that a needle found in the lungs is Tereifah, did not want to rule about this.
They did not permit it, for they are concerned lest it came through the Veshet.
They did not forbid it. Since it was found in the great chamber, it is more likely that it came through the Kaneh.
A needle was found in a piece of the liver. Mar brei d'Rav Yosef was about to rule that it is Tereifah.
Rav Ashi: Would you say the same if it was found in flesh? (Since a punctured liver is not Tereifah, regarding a needle, it is like flesh!)
(Rav Ashi) Rather, we see which way the needle points. If the needle's head is inside the liver, it surely came through the Kaneh (and it is Kosher). If the head is outside, it surely came through the Veshet (and it is Tereifah).
This distinction applies only to a thick needle. If it is thin, we are concerned lest it came through the Veshet no matter which direction it faces.