TO WHAT WE ATTRIBUTE PUNCTURES
Question: Why is this different than the case of a needle found in the Beis ha'Kosos (a fold after the first stomach)?
If a needle was found in the Beis ha'Kosos, if only one wall was punctured, it is Kosher. If both were punctured, it is Tereifah.
We do not distinguish which way it is pointing!
Answer: Since food and drink pass through the Beis ha'Kosos, perhaps they pushed (even the head of the needle) through.
A needle was found in the great chamber of the liver. Huna Mar brei d'Rav Idi ruled that it is Tereifah. Rav Ada bar Minyomi was Machshir.
(Ravina): (Huna fed the animal to dogs.) He must compensate the owner (really, it was Kosher).
(Rav Kahana): If a date pit was found in the gall bladder, it definitely came from the Kaneh (it is Kosher);
Even though it is too big to leave the Kaneh by itself, when the animal moves, it becomes wedged in deeper and deeper, until eventually it leaves.
If an olive pit was found it is Tereifah, for it tears.
(R. Yochanan): (The lung) is called Rei'ah because it improves Re'iyah (vision).
This is only if it is eaten with herbs that improve vision.
Question: If the lungs were punctured where the Shochet's hand goes, do we say that the Shochet caused the hole after Shechitah (and it is Kosher), or not?
Answer #1 (Rav Ada bar Noson): We attribute it to the Shochet.
Answer #2 (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Mari): We do not.
The law is, we attribute it to the Shochet.
(Rav Mesharshiya): This is reasonable, for if a wolf took the intestines and returned them punctured, we attribute the holes to the wolf.
Question: If the lungs were punctured by a worm, do we assume that this happened after Shechitah?
Answer: Rav Yosef bar Dosoy and Rabanan argued about this.
The Halachah is, we assume that it happened after Shechitah.
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): A punctured lung is Tereifah only if the hole goes to the chambers.
(Rabah bar Tachlifa): He refers to the great chamber.
(Rav Acha bar Aba and Rav Bivi): R. Maloch cited R. Yehoshua ben Levi to say that the Halachah follows R. Shimon.
(Rav Huna): No, R. Yehoshua ben Levi says that the Halachah is not like R. Shimon.
(R. Zeira): R. Maloch and R. Yitzchak bar Ami said that the Halachah is not lke R. Shimon.
The Halachah is not like R. Shimon.
A PUNCTURED STOMACH
(Mishnah): If the Kevah was punctured (it is Tereifah).
(Rav Yitzchak bar Nachmani): Kohanim (who receive the jaw, foreleg and Kevah of Chulin animals) eat the Chelev on the Kevah. This is like R. Yishmael, who permits it.
A way to remember (who permitted) is that Yishmael the Kohen helps Kohanim.
Question: Where do we find that R. Yishmael helps Kohanim?
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael) Question: "So you will bless Bnei Yisrael" teaches that the Kohanim bless Yisrael. What is the source that the Kohanim are blessed?
Answer (R. Yishmael): "I (Hash-m) will bless them."
Question (R. Akiva) The Torah commands the Kohanim to bless Yisrael. What is the source that Hash-m blesses Yisrael?
Answer: "I (Hash-m) will bless them."
Question: How does R. Akiva learn that the Kohanim are blessed?
Answer (Rav Nachman): "(Hash-m told Avraham) I will bless those who bless you."
Question: Why do we say that R. Yishmael helps Kohanim? (Also R. Akiva expounds that Hash-m blesses them!)
Answer: R. Yishmael holds that Hash-m blesses them together with Yisrael. (This is better.)
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): "And all the Chelev on the Kerev (innards)" includes the Chelev on the small intestines;
R. Akiva says, it comes to include the Chelev on the Kevah.
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): "And the Chelev on (some texts read - The Chelev that covers) the Kerev" - just like the Chelev covering the Kerev is a membrane that can be peeled off, also all such Chelev (of a Shelamim is offered, and is forbidden to eat even in Chulin Behemos);
R. Akiva says, just like the Chelev covering the Kerev is a membrane spread over it that can be peeled off, also all such Chelev (is offered in Kodshim and forbidden in Chulin).
Answer #1 (Ravin): The opinions in the first Beraisa must be switched.
Question: Why not switch the opinions in the second Beraisa?
Answer: Since the second Beraisa details the opinions so precisely, presumably it is accurate.
Objection: R. Yitzchak bar Nachmani taught that Kohanim were lenient like R. Yishmael!
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): R. Yishmael said in his father's name that the Chelev on the Kevah is permitted; he himself holds it is forbidden.
WHICH CHELEV CAN SEAL A HOLE
(Rav): If Chelev that is permitted (to eat) seals a hole, it is as if there is no hole (regarding Tereifos). Forbidden Chelev does not seal a hole.
(Rav Sheshes): Both types of Chelev can seal holes.
Question (R. Zeira): Can Chelev covering the Kerev in a Chayah seal holes (according to Rav)?
If we understand Rav very literally, all permitted Chelev seals. All forbidden Chelev does not seal. All Chelev of Chayos seals, for it is permitted;
If Rav teaches that permitted Chalavim clings to the punctured organ, but forbidden Chalavim does not (presumably, this depends on which organ the Chelev covers), Chelev of the Kerev (even in a Chayah) does not cling to the Kerev.
Answer (Abaye): This is obvious. Even though the Chelev is permitted, it does not cling.
An animal was brought in front of Rava. Forbidden Chelev covered a puncture.
Rava: The animal is permitted. We rely on Rav Sheshes' opinion. Also, the Torah is concerned for the money of Yisrael.
Objection (Rav Papa): We cannot be lenient about a Torah Isur because the Torah is concerned for the money of Yisrael!
A man asked Rava about honey that had been exposed.
Rava: The honey is permitted. Firstly, a Mishnah teaches that only wine, water and milk become forbidden if exposed;
Secondly, the Torah is concerned for the money of Yisrael!
Objection (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The Torah's concern for the money of Yisrael does not override mortal danger and R. Shimon's opinion!
(Beraisa): The following liquids are not forbidden through exposure - brine, vinegar, fish oil, and honey.
R. Shimon: They are forbidden. I saw a snake drinking brine!
Chachamim: That was a deranged snake. Normal snakes do not drink these.
Rava: At least admit to me that brine does not become forbidden. Rav Papa and other Chachamim would put exposed liquids into brine to permit them!
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: Admit to me that honey becomes forbidden, for (not only R. Shimon, but also) R. Shimon ben Elazar forbids this.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): Exposed honey is forbidden.
(Rav Nachman): Chelev in the shape of a hat does not seal.
Question: To which Chelev does he refer?
Answer #1: He refers to Chelev at the end of the (large) intestines.
Answer #2: He refers to the Chelev over the heart.
(Rava): Rav Nachman taught that either Chimtza or Bar Chimtza (two Chalavim on the Kevah) seals, but not both. I don't know which seals.
(Rav Chinena): Only Bar Chimtza seals.
Question: Which is Chimtza, and which is Bar Chimtza?
Answer: We learn from Rav Nachman (below).