HOLES IN THE KANEH
(Rav Yehudah): If the Kaneh is riddled with holes, like a sieve, if the combined size is the majority of the width, it is Tereifah.
Question (R. Yirmeyah - Mishnah): If a skull has a long thin hole, or small holes, if the combined area is the area of a drill bit, (it is considered incomplete, so) it does not have Tum'as Ohel.
This shows that small holes join up to the size of a single hole (which would inhibit Tum'as Ohel);
Also in the Kaneh, small holes should join up to the size of an Isar (a coin) to make it Tereifah!
Answer: The questioner did not realize that Rav Yehudah discusses punctures without Chisaron (no tissue of the Kaneh is missing);
(R. Chelbo): If there are holes with Chisaron, if the total area is like an Isar, it is Tereifah;
If the punctures are without Chisaron, if they join up to the majority of the width of the Kaneh, it is Tereifah.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): If a strip was removed from the Kaneh, if its total area is like an Isar, the animal is Tereifah.
Question (R. Yitzchak bar Nachmani): If it is riddled with holes like a sieve, what is the law?
Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Holes with Chisaron join to the size of an Isar. Punctures without Chisaron join up to the majority of the width of the Kaneh.
Question: What is the law regarding birds?
Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Nachmani): One cuts off the area surrounding the holes. If this covers the majority of the opening of the Kaneh, it is Tereifah.
(Rav Nachman): If a piece of the Kaneh is cut but still attached (like a swinging door), if an Isar could go through (widthwise), it is Tereifah.
(Rav): If it is cracked (lengthwise), if one Chulya (ring; Rashi - three rings) on each end remains intact, it is not Tereifah;
(R. Yochanan and R. Yonason): As long as the crack does not extend to either end, it is Kosher.
(R. Chiya bar Yosef): The entire Kaneh is valid for Shechitah, from the big (top) ring until the branching of the lungs.
(Rava): The bottommost ring is where the animal can bend its neck when it grazes, as long as one does not pull the Kaneh from its normal place.
Question (R. Chanina): If the animal stretches out its Kaneh by itself, is this Kosher for Shechitah?
This question is unresolved.
(R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish): If one pulled the Kaneh and slaughtered, it is invalid;
If the Kaneh was punctured below the chest, the law of lungs applies. (A puncture of any size makes it Tereifah.)
(Beraisa): The Chazeh (chest) of a Shelamim (that is given to Kohanim) is what faces the ground, from the neck until the Keres;
One (Rashi; Tosfos - two) ribs from each side are also given.
THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
(Mishnah): If the membrane around the brain is punctured (it is Tereifah).
Version #1 (Rav and Shmuel): Even if only the outer membrane is punctured, it is Tereifah.
Version #2 (Rav and Shmuel): It is Tereifah only if the inner membrane is (also) punctured.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): There are similar membranes surrounding the testicles.
(R. Shimon ben Pazi): This applies to the part of the brain in the skull (a puncture of any size makes it Tereifah);
From where it leaves the skull towards the spinal cord, the law of the spinal cord applies (it is Tereifah only if the majority is cut).
Question: What is considered 'leaving the skull'?
Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Nachmani): There are two bean-shaped glands where the neck joins the skull. Within the glands (towards the brain) is like the brain. Outside them is like the spinal cord;
If it is even with the glands, I am unsure.
Presumably, it is like the brain.
R. Yirmeyah found these glands in a bird.
TEREIFOS OF THE HEART
(Mishnah): If the heart was punctured, reaching to the interior.
Question (R. Zeira): Does this mean to any interior chamber, or only to the innermost chamber?
Answer (Abaye - Mishnah): R. Shimon says, only if (the lung) is punctured to the branches;
(Rabah bar Tachlifa): This means to the central branch.
Rejection: That is no proof. That Mishnah says 'to the place of the branches, the place to which all branches flow;
Our Mishnah says 'to its interior.' (Perhaps) this means even a small chamber!
(Rav): Any puncture in Kaneh ha'Lev (this will be explained) makes it Tereifah;
(Shmuel): It is Tereifah only if the majority is cut.
Question: What is Kaneh ha'Lev?
Answer (Rabah bar Yitzchak): It is Chelev on the ribs (Rashi; Ra'avad - Chelev of the heart, chest and Kaneh).
Objection: Surely, cutting this does not make it a Tereifah!
Correction: Rather, it is a branch of fat between the lungs that connects to the heart (Rambam - the artery from the heart to the lungs).
(Ameimar): There are three major Kanim - one (artery) emanating from the heart, one (the windpipe) from the lungs, and one from the liver (that returns blood from the body to the heart. The Rambam says so. Some explain that this is also Rashi's opinion. The simple reading of Rashi is incompatible with what is found through dissection.)
The branch that goes to the lungs is like the lungs (any puncture makes it Tereifah). The branch to the liver is like the liver (if anything remains, it is not Tereifah). Rav and Shmuel argued (above) about the branch to the heart.
(Mar bar Chiya): No. The branch that goes to the lungs is like the liver. The branch to the liver is like the lungs. Rav and Shmuel argued about the branch to the heart.
TREIFOS OF THE SPINAL CORD
(Mishnah): If the spinal cord was broken...
(Beraisa - Rebbi): If the majority of the spinal cord was snapped, it is Tereifah;
R. Yakov says, even if it was punctured. (it is Tereifah)
A case occurred, and Rebbi ruled like R. Yakov.
(Rav Huna): The Halachah is not like R. Yakov.
Question: What majority does Rebbi require?
Version #1 - Answer (Rav): It is the majority of the 'skin' (outer membrane) of the cord.
Version #2 - Answer (Rav): It is the majority of the interior.
Version #2 surely admits that if the majority of the skin is cut, it is Tereifah.
Question: According to Version #1, if the majority of the interior is cut, what is the law?
Answer: Niyuli taught that only the skin matters. The interior makes no difference.
Rav Noson bar Avin was checking for the majority of the skin and of the interior.
Rav: The interior makes no difference.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): If the cord became so watery that it flows, or Nismasmes (so soft that it cannot stand), it is Tereifah.
Question (R. Yirmeyah): If it cannot stand due to its weight, what is the law?
This question is unresolved.
(Bei Rav): If the cord became Nismasmes, it is Tereifah; if it was Nismazmez (part of the interior flowed out), it is Kosher.
Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): If the interior of the cord was Nismazmez, it is Tereifah.
Answer: The text of the Beraisa should say 'Nismasmes'.
Objection: Levi saw a man bang his head, Levi lamented, 'His brain was Nismazmez'!
Suggestion: He lamented that the man will die.
Answer (Abaye): No, he lamented that the man cannot have children.
Question: How far down does this law of the spinal cord apply (that cutting the majority makes it Tereifah)?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): It applies until between the branches.
Rav Dimi bar Yitzchak wanted to show where this is.
In a fat animal, he could not show this precisely without tearing it out.
In a thin animal, the hip pressed the flesh into the cord, and the cord was not recognizable.
He cited what Shmuel said, 'until the first (area between the branches), if the majority is cut, it is Tereifah. At the third, it is Kosher. I do not know the law of the second.'