[72a - 35 lines; 72b - 28 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Rashi 72a DH ha'Basar Maga Neveilah הבשר מגע נבלה:
The words "Daf 129b" דף קכט: (in parentheses)
should be "Daf 127b" דף קכז:
1)[line 8]מדברי סופריםMI'DIVREI SOFRIM- this Tum'ah is a Rabbinic decree (i.e. mid'Oraisa the midwife is also Tehorah, like the ring of our Sugya, because of Tum'ah Belu'ah. She is only Temei'ah mid'Rabanan)
2)[line 14]פרוזדורPROZDOR- the cervical canal
3)[line 15]טרידאTERIDA- she is preoccupied [with her contractions and birth pangs, and is not able to warn the midwife not to touch the emerging stillbirth]
4)[line 16]"וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה [בַּחֲלַל חֶרֶב, אוֹ בְמֵת, אוֹ בְעֶצֶם אָדָם, אוֹ בְקָבֶר, יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים.]""V'CHOL ASHER YIGA AL PNEI HA'SADEH [BA'CHALAL CHEREV O V'MES O V'ETZEM ADAM O V'KAVER; YITMA SHIV'AS YAMIM.]"- "And whomever comes into the in the open fields [with one who was slain by the sword, a dead body, a human bone, or a grave, shall be Tamei for seven days.]" (Bamidbar 19:16)
5)[line 18]גולל ודופקGOLEL V'DOFEK
(a)There are three basic opinions as to the meaning of Golel and Dofek:
1.Golel refers to the wooden or stone cover of a coffin, and Dofek refers to its sides. The sides are called Dofek because the cover of the coffin bangs ("Dofek") on them. (RASHI to Sukah 23a, TOSFOS ibid. DH v'Lo Golel, ARUCH Erech Gelal, OR ZARU'A 2:424)
2.Golel refers to the gravestone that is above the coffin, which is used as a marker. At the top and bottom of the gravestone are two smaller stones that are each called Dofek. (RABEINU TAM, cited by TOSFOS to Kesuvos 4b DH Ad she'Yisasem ha'Golel)
3.When people used burial vaults rather than graves, they made use of a large stone or log as a door, which they would roll in front of the entrance. This door was called a Golel because they would roll ("Golel") it. They would also use a wedge-like stone or plank, called a Dofek, to keep the Golel in place (OR ZARU'A 2:424, quoting RAV MOSHE).
(b)The Golel and Dofek are Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah and are Metamei through Maga and Ohel (and according to Rebbi Eliezer in Ohalos 2:4, they are also Metamei through Masa — see RASHASH to RASHI Sukah ibid. DH v'Lo Golel). (See also Insights to Chulin 126:6.)
6)[line 19]הלכתא גמירי להHILCHESA GEMIRI LAH- we know this Halachah from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai ("Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai")
7)[line 21]"כל הנוגע במת בנפש [האדם אשר ימות]""[KOL] HA'NOGE'A B'MES B'NEFESH [HA'ADAM ASHER YAMUS]"- "[Anyone] who touches the dead body [of any man who has died]" (Bamidbar 19:13) - The word "b'Nefesh" literally means in the body, which Rebbi Oshaya interprets as the stillbirth inside the mother's womb.
8)[line 24]רביעית דם הבאה מן המת שמטמאהREVI'IS DAM HA'BA'AH MIN HA'MES SHE'METAMA'AH (OHEL: REVI'IS DAM MIN HA'MES)
(a)The blood that comes out of a dead body is Metamei b'Ohel (see Background to Chulin 125:4) if there is a Revi'is (approximately 75, 86 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of it is in one location.
(b)Rebbi Akiva rules that a Revi'is of blood is also Metamei if it came out of two different people, however, the Rabanan (Sanhedrin 4a) rule that the Revi'is of blood must come out of one person for it to be Metamei b'Ohel (see Insights to Nazir 38:1). The Halachah follows the opinion of the Rabanan.
9)[line 30]"וְעַל כָּל נַפְשֹׁת מֵת לֹא יָבֹא; [לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא יִטַּמָּא.]""V'AL KOL NAFSHOS MES LO YAVO ..."- "And he may not come into contact with any dead body; [he may not become Tamei for his father nor his mother.]" (Vayikra 21:11) - The word "Nafshos," which refers to blood, is in the plural.
10)[line 34]הבשר מגע נבלהHA'BASAR MAGA NEVEILAH- the flesh of the remainder of the fetus has the status of flesh that has touched Neveilah (see Background to Chulin 127:23), and is a Rishon l'Tum'ah (for a discussion of the Halachos of Tum'ah, see Background to Chulin 117:31a)
11)[last line]מגע טרפה שחוטהMAGA TEREIFAH SHECHUTAH- [the flesh of the remainder of the fetus has the status of flesh] that has touched a slaughtered animal that was a Tereifah (see Background to Chulin 140:3)
12)[line 11]טול לך מה שהבאתTOL LECHA MAH SHE'HEVEISA- (lit. take back that which you have brought) retract your proof (for the following reason)
13)[line 14]בן שמנה חיBEN SHEMONAH CHAI - a calf born alive after an eight-month term of pregnancy (BEN SHEMONAH)
(a)According to Chazal, a calf that is born after an eight-month term of pregnancy term will not be viable. Even if it appears normal upon birth it is assumed that it will not survive and will die from a birth defect shortly.
(b)The Ben Shemonah calf is not considered part of one's cattle, and is not included in the verse, "v'Zavachta mi'Bekarcha umi'Tzoncha Ka'asher Tzivisicha" - "and you shall slaughter from your cattle and your flocks as I have commanded you" (Devarim 12:21), which is the verse that permits the meat of one's cattle and flocks after Shechitah, ritual slaughter.
(c)If, however, and eight-month fetus was found in its mother's womb after her Shechitah, it is considered to be part of its mother and it is permitted because of its mother's Shechitah.
14)[line 16]טומאת בית הסתריםTUM'AS BEIS HA'SETARIM
15)[line 18]שלשה על שלשה שנחלק טהור מן המדרסSHELOSHAH AL SHELOSHAH SHE'NECHLAK TAHOR MIN HA'MIDRAS (ZAV: MISHKAV U'MOSHAV)
(a)A Zav (see Background to Chulin 88:4), as well as a Zavah (see Background to Menachos 89:6), Nidah (see Background to Chulin 31:13) or Yoledes (see Background to Chulin 41:39), can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton, of a Zav, Zavah, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that is under a Zav becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. The Mishnah (Kelim 27:2) states that an item of clothing can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of three Tefachim by three Tefachim and that a piece of leather can receive Tum'as Midras if it is the size of five Tefachim by five Tefachim. If they were smaller than that, they are not suitable for a Zav to sit upon and do not become Tamei through Midras.
(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.
(d)A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or an object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way.
(e)In order to receive Tum'as Mes (or any other Tum'ah), the item of clothing need only be the size of Shalosh Al Shalosh (three Etzba'os by three Etzba'os), because then it is still fit to be used by the poor. (Etzba is feminine; therefore we say Shalosh Etzba'os. Tefach is masculine, therefore we say Sheloshah Tefachim.)
16)[line 24]שלש על שלשSHALOSH AL SHALOSH- three by three [Etzba'os]