[140a - 47 lines; 140b - 47 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 140b DH u'Vak'a v'Dagra ובקעה ודגרה:

The words "Chayav l'Shalem" חייב לשלם

should be "Chayav l'Shale'ach" חייב לשלח

as it appears in the other editions of the Shas

[2] Rashi 140b DH Lisni Rovdei Ilan ליתני רובדי אילן:

The words "v'Af Al Gav d'Yosheves b'Mekomah Tachteha d'Patur" ואע''ג דיושבת במקומה תחתיה דפטור

should be "d'Patur v'Af Al Gav d'Yosheves b'Mekomah Tachteha" דפטור ואע''ג דיושבת במקומה תחתיה

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1)[line 1]"[עפיה שפיר ואינבה שגיא ומזון לכלה בה תחתוהי תטלל חיות ברא] ובאנפוהי ידרון צקרי שמיא [ומנה יתזן כל בשרא]""[AFYEI SHAPIR V'INBEI SAGI U'MAZON L'CHOLA VEI, TECHOSOHI TATLEL CHEIVAS BARA] UV'ANFOHI YEDURAN TZIPAREI SHEMAYA [U'MINEI YIT'ZIN KOL BISRA]" - "[Its branches were beautiful, its fruit plentiful and sufficient to sustain all; beneath its shade all creatures took shelter,] all the birds of the heaven nested in its branches, [and all flesh was fed from it.]" (Daniel 4:9) (Nevuchadnetzar's Personal Dream)

(a)In his dream, Nevuchadnetzar saw a gigantic tree whose numerous branches spread across the entire land. It bore sufficient fruit to sustain his entire kingdom. Wild beasts rested in its shade and birds dwelt in its branches.

(b)He saw an angel descend from heaven and call out for the tree to be cut down, together with its branches and fruit. All of the wild beasts and birds that found shelter in its shade scattered. The tree's roots, however, remained intact, and were tied to the place with chains, to feed from the herbs and the grass like the beasts of the field for seven years. The king consulted his wise men but none was able to interpret his dream. He then called for Daniel, who had already interpreted one dream for him.

(c)Daniel discerned the meaning of the king's dream. The mighty tree was none other than Nevuchadnetzar himself. It represented his tremendous success in building his kingdom. HaSh-m decreed, however, that Nevuchadnetzar would be banished from mankind, to live for seven years among the animals of the field, to share their habitat and their food. This was to teach him that HaSh-m was the ultimate Sovereign, and that He designates Sovereignty to whomever He chooses.

(d)When the seven-year period would end, Daniel assured him, Nevuchadnetzar would be returned to his throne.

(e)Finally, Daniel gave the king some advice. Having seen how many of his impoverished brethren were going from door to door begging, he suggested that Nevuchadnetzar redeem himself by giving charity generously, which he did, delaying the fulfillment of his dream by one year.

2)[line 2]"כל צפור טהורה [תאכלו]""KOL TZIPOR TEHORAH [TOCHELU.]"- "[You are permitted to eat] every Kosher bird." (Devarim 14:11)

3)[line 4]טרפהTEREIFAH

(a)A Tereifah is an animal or bird that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year, as mentioned in the Gemara — Chulin 42a.) The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons; rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai (RASHI to Chulin 42a DH Naflah; see Insights ibid.).

(b)For a further discussion of the eighteen signs of Tereifos, see Background to Chulin 42:3.

4)[line 5]בשחוטה דמצורעB'SHECHUTAH D'METZORA

On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds, a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. First one of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl, then a Kohen dips the other bird along with the other articles into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles the mixture seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is then sent away towards the fields. The Kohen shaves off the Metzora's hair and the Metzora immerses himself in a Mikvah, completing the first part of his purification process. (The second part, which involves Korbanos, is done a week later.) (Vayikra 14:1-8)

5)[line 6]"וזה אשר לא תאכלו מהם""V'ZEH ASHER LO SOCHLU ME'HEM"- "And these are the kinds [of birds] from which you are not permitted to eat" (Devarim 14:12)

6)[line 10]דבר הלמד מענינוDAVAR HA'LAMED ME'INYANO

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. These methods made it possible to present the Written Word in a compact form, from which the Oral Law could be interpreted by means of application of these rules. One of them is Davar ha'Lamed me'Inyano.

(b)"Davar ha'Lamed me'Inyano" means "a topic that is understood from its context." Upon inspection of the verses adjacent to the verse in question, it is possible to resolve a doubt about the interpretation of that verse.

7)[line 11]"שתי צפרים חיות [טהורות]""SHTEI TZIPORIM CHAYOS [TEHOROS]"- "two live [Kosher] birds" (Vayikra 14:4)

8)[line 12]שחיות בפיךSHE'CHAYOS B'FICHA- that are permitted to be eaten

9)[line 12][ד]לאו שחיות בפיך[D']LAV SHE'CHAYOS B'FICHA- that are not permitted to be eaten (i.e. the non-kosher birds)

10)[line 13]שחיין ראשי אברים שלהןSHE'CHAYIN ROSHEI EVARIN SHE'LAHEN - that their major limbs exist (TAMUS V'ZACHRUS BI'VEHEMAH, V'EIN TAMUS V'ZACHRUS B'OFOS)

(a)In order for an animal to be brought as a Korban Olah, it must meet the requirements of the Torah (Vayikra 22:18-19) with regard to being unblemished (Tamus) and male (Zachrus). Similarly, a Korban Chatas must be unblemished and female.

(b)When a bird is offered for these Korbanos, though, it does not require those specifications. A bird offering may be male or female, and it is only invalidated by a missing limb and not by a blemish. (This limitation is learned from the verse "Hakrivehu Na l'Fechasecha ha'Yirtzecha O ha'Yisa Fanecha..." - "[And if you offer a blind animal as a sacrifice, is this not evil? And if you offer a lame or a sick animal, is this not evil?] Try to offer it to your governor, will he be pleased with you, or will he find favor in you?..." (Malachi 1:8) — RASHI to Chulin 23a DH bi'Vehemah.)

11)[line 16]טרפה חיהTEREIFAH CHAYAH

See above, entry #3.

12a)[line 20]נאמר מכשיר ומכפר בפניםNE'EMAR MACHSHIR U'MECHAPER BIFNIM- the Torah teaches about [bringing] animals that are Machshir — that make certain individuals fit to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and eat Kodshim (e.g. the Chatas and Asham brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Metzora) and animals that atone (the Chatas and Asham brought by sinners) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, as sacrifices.

b)[line 21]נאמר מכשיר ומכפר בחוץNE'EMAR MACHSHIR U'MECHAPER BA'CHUTZ- the Torah teaches about [bringing] animals that are Machshir (i.e. the birds brought to purify the Metzora and enable him to enter a settlement) and animals that atone (the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach and Eglah Arufah) outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

13)[line 25]עיר הנדחתIR HA'NIDACHAS

(a)A city that was led astray (Nidchah) to the extent that its inhabitants willfully committed idolatry, must be destroyed. All of those who were led astray must be killed and the city burned, along with all of the possessions of its inhabitants, as stated in Devarim 13:13-19. The righteous people who were not led astray are not killed, but their possessions are burned. The Madichim, those who influenced the city to commit idolatry, are punished with Sekilah (stoning) (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 4:1).

(b) Other requirements to classify a city as an Ir ha'Nidachas are that the Madichim must be male residents of the city and must be from the same tribe to which the city belongs. There must be at least two Madichim, who must influence the majority of the city (that must have a minimum of 100 people). In addition, the city cannot be a border town (RAMBAM ibid. 4:2).

14)[line 27]לתקלהL'TAKALAH- as a stumbling block (since the bird of an Ir ha'Nidachas is Asur b'Hana'ah)

15)[line 28]שלא לזווג לה אחרת קודם שלוחיהSHE'LO L'ZAVEG LAH ACHERES KODEM SHILUCHEHA- he should not pair up the remaining bird with another bird and use the two to be Metaher a second Metzora; rather, he must send away the remaining bird, as the Torah commands

16)[line 32]כל מה שאתה מהייה הימנוKOL MAH SHE'ATAH MEHAYEH HEIMENU- everything that you produce from it

17)[line 45]אם טרפה חייב בשילוחEM TEREIFAH CHAYAV B'SHILU'ACH- a mother bird that is a Tereifah must be sent away

140b----------------------------------------140b

18)[line 2]אם (אפרוחין) [אפרוח] טרפהEM (EFROCHIM) [EFRO'ACH] TEREIFAH- The Gemara originally assumes that this means that even if the chick is a Tereifah the mother must be sent away; the Gemara concludes that it means that if the mother is a Tereifah she must be sent away (the Girsa "Efro'ach" is from TOSFOS DH Hachi Garsinan)

19)[line 5]כיון דאילו שביק להו, מטרפיKEIVAN D'ILU SHAVIK LEHU, ME'TARFEI- since, had he left those chicks in their present state (half-slaughtered) and does not complete the Shechitah, they will become Tereifos and will not be permitted to be eaten

20)[line 9]מטליתMATLIS- a strip of cloth

21)[line 9]כנפיםKENAFAYIM- feathers

22)[line 10]ביצים מוזרותBEITZIM MUZAROS- unfertilized eggs

23)[line 10]שני סדרי ביצים זו על גב זוSHNEI SIDREI BEITZIM ZO AL GAV ZO- two layers of eggs, one on top of the other

24)[line 13]תסילTASIL- a species of dove

25)[line 17]קוראKOREI- (O.F. perdriz) partridge; any of several kinds of Kosher birds belonging to the same group as the quail, pheasant, and grouse (it is not the cuckoo since this Korei is a kosher bird — RASHI, TOSFOS to Chulin 63a DH Netz. However, Rashi to Yirmeyahu 17:11 explains that it is the cuckoo.) The Korei is unique in two ways: 1. it hatches the eggs of other birds; 2. the male and the female both sit on the eggs.

26)[line 18]"קורא דגר ולא ילד""KOREI DAGAR V'LO YALAD"- "As a partridge sits on eggs that it did not lay (that when hatched, do not consider themselves chicks of the Korei), [so is he who amasses riches unjustly; he shall leave them in the midst of his days, and will die a wretched person.]" (Yirmeyahu 17:11)

27)[line 18]"[שמה קננה קפוז ותמלט] ובקעה ודגרה בצלה [אך שם נקבצו דיות אשה]""[SHAMAH KINENAH KIPOZ VA'TEMALET,] U'VAK'A V'DAGRAH V'TZILAH ACH SHAM NIKBETZU DA'YOS ISHA RE'USAH"- "[There shall the great owl make her nest and lay her eggs,] hatching them and gathering them together under her shadow" (Yeshayah 34:15)

28)[line 25]מעופפתME'OFEFES- flying about the nest

29)[line 27]אפרוחים מפריחיםEFROCHIN MAFRICHIN- chicks that are able to fly

30)[line 29]בני קיימאBNEI KAYAMA- viable

31)[line 31]מאי תלמודא?MAI TALMUDA?- What is the basis [for the Halachah that teaches us that there is a Mitzvah of Shilu'ach ha'Ken even when the mother bird is flying above the next, as long as its wings touch the nest from time to time]?

32)[line 33]רובדי אילןROVDEI ILAN- interlaced branches

33)[line 33]שאם תשמט, נופלת עליהםSHE'IM TISHAMET, NOFELES ALEIHEM- if the branches are parted and the mother bird slips down, she will fall directly on top of the eggs

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