[127a - 38 lines; 127b - 41 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 127b [line 18]:

"b'Shabbos Chayav Chatas, Leima Mesayei'a Lei..." בשבת חייב חטאת לימא מסייע ליה

The TOSFOS HA'ROSH is Gores after the word "Chatas":

"Shani Hasam d'Gali Kera" שאני התם דגלי קרא (this also seems to be the Girsa of TOSFOS DH Mesayei'a)

[2] Tosfos DH Mesayei'a מסייע:

The words "u'Mikra Mema'et Lei" ומקרא ממעט ליה

should be "v'Dachi d'Mikra Mema'et Lei" ודחי דמקרא ממעט ליה

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1)[line 1]ששורץSHE'SHORETZ- that creeps

2)[line 2]המשריץHA'MASHRITZ- that breeds

3)[line 17]ספק טומאה צפהSAFEK TUM'AH TZAFAH (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID / SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM)

(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Temei'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband (for a full discussion of the Sotah woman, see Background to Chulin 88:28). Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

(c)The Halachos mentioned above deal with a normal doubt. However, if the object that is Safek Tamei is not at rest, such as an object floating on the water or flying through the air, it is considered Tahor, whether it is in Reshus ha'Yachid or Reshus ha'Rabim. (Taharos 4:8).

4)[line 18]תרתי "על הארץ" כתיביTARTEI "AL HA'ARETZ" KESIVEI- the words "Al ha'Aretz" are written two times in the verses (Vayikra 11:29 and 11:41)

5)[line 19]ערודARVAD- a species of serpent or lizard

6)[line 19](וכן) [ובן] הנפילים(V'CHEN) [U'BEN] HA'NEFILIM- and a species of lizard that lives in the water

7)[line 20]סלמנדראSALAMANDRA- a species of salamander said to spontaneously generate in fire (the fire salamander; see Insights #1)

8)[line 27]"[שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת כָּל הָעַמִּים,] הַאֲזִינוּ כָּל יֹשְׁבֵי חָלֶד""[SHIM'U ZOS KOL HA'AMIM,] HA'AZINU KOL YOSHEVEI CHALED"- "[Listen to this, all of the nations,] Give ear, all you inhabitants of the world!" (Tehilim 49:2) - The world is called "Chaled" (a) because it is the only place where the Chuldah lives (i.e. there is no creature in the sea that bears the name "Chuldah" (RASHI); (b) because it is ancient and rusted ("Chalud") (RASHI to Tehilim 49:2)

9)[line 27]ביברי דנרשBEIVAREI D'NARASH- (a) (O.F. bevrons) the beavers of the town of Narash (Narse), a town in Bavel (RASHI); (b) the inhabitants of the towns of Bei Bari and Narash, towns in Bavel (TOSFOS) (See Insights #2)

10)[line 28]אינן מן הישובEINAN MIN HA'YISHUV- (a) their place of origin is in the water, and not the dry land (RASHI); (b) are not part of the civilized world, since they are utterly wicked (TOSFOS)

11a)[line 28]בשמתא נרשB'SHAMTA NARASH- [the people of] Narash should be put in Cherem, excommunicated (See Background to Chulin 116:11)

b)[line 28]תרביה, משכיה, ואליתיהTARBEI, MASHCHEI, ALYASEI- its fat, its hide, its fatty tail (i.e. all of its inhabitants)

12)[line 29]"אֶרֶץ, אֶרֶץ, אָרֶץ ,שִׁמְעִי דְּבַר ה'!""ERETZ, ERETZ, ARETZ, SHIM'I DEVAR HASH-M!"- "O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of HaSh-m!" (Yirmeyahu 22:29)

13)[line 30]נרשאה נשקיךNARASHA'AH NASHKICH- if someone from Narash kissed you

14)[line 30]מני ככיך!MANI KAKEICH!- count your teeth!

15)[line 30]נהר פקודאה לוייךNEHAR PEKUDA'AH LAVYEICH- if someone from Nehar Pekod accompanied you

16)[line 31]מגלימא שפירא דחזי עלךMI'GELIMA SHAPIRA D'CHAZEI ALACH- [it is only] due to the handsome coat that he saw you wearing [that he wants to steal]

17)[line 31]פומבדיתאהPUMBEDISA'AH- a person from Pumbedisa

18)[line 31]אשני אושפיזךASHNEI USHPIZEICH- change your place of lodging

19)[line 37]האבר והבשרHA'EVER VEHA'BASAR (EVER MIN HA'CHAI)

(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a limb that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).

(b)The Gemara (Chulin 128b) brings a source from the verses to show that Ever Min ha'Chai is Metamei like a limb of a Neveilah. A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(c)The prohibition for Benei Yisrael to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). If the limb contains only flesh (e.g. the tongue or heart), one receive lashes for eating a k'Zayis of flesh. If the limb contains bones, sinews and flesh, then the bone and sinews may be combined with the flesh to make up a k'Zayis if the limb is eaten in its natural state (i.e. if the flesh was not detached from the limb prior to its consumption). One does not receive lashes for eating less than a k'Zayis, even if he ate an entire limb. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros Ch. 5; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #452)

(d)The prohibition for Nochrim to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel" - "... from all of the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam may eat from all of the trees, but he may not eat Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan. Other sages learn the prohibition from different verses (ibid.).

(e)All opinions agree that the prohibition for Nochrim against eating Ever Min ha'Chai applies to both Kosher and non-Kosher animals.

(f)For a Jew, however, there is a Machlokes: Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Elazar rule that it applies to all animals for a Jew also. Rebbi Meir rules that it applies only to a Kosher Behemah (i.e. domesticated farm animals such as cows, goats and sheep). The Chachamim rule that it applies to all Kosher animals (Behemos and Chayos) and fowl. The Halachah follows this opinion (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 62:1).

20)[last line]המדולדליןHA'MEDULDALIN- (lit. that are hanging) that are almost completely severed, but are still attached

21)[last line]טומאת אוכליןTUM'AS OCHLIN

See Background to Chulin 120:2.

22)[last line]צריכין הכשרTZERICHIN HECHSHER- and need to become wet in order for them to receive Tum'as Ochlin (see Background to Chulin 114:6)

127b----------------------------------------127b

23)[line 4]אבר נבלהEVER NEVEILAH - an entire limb of a Neveilah consisting of bone, flesh and sinews (ISUR ACHILAS NEVEILAH / TUM'AS NEVEILAH)

A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah), you shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri; for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-kim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

24)[line 7]מעלין ארוכהMA'ALIN ARUCHAH- if it will heal, be restored

25)[line 12]מעורין בחוט השערהME'URIN B'CHUT HA'SA'ARAH- and are attached even by something as thin as a hairbreadth

26)[line 16]צמקו באיביהןTZAMKU B'IBEIHEN- that dried up and shrunk during development while still attached to their shoots

27)[line 19]כרובKRUV- cabbage

28)[line 19]דלעתDELA'AS- gourd

29)[line 25]עוקציהןUKTZEIHEN- their stems

30)[line 27]נפשחNIFSHACH- that is stripped, split

31)[line 30]מידי איריא? הא כדאיתא והא כדאיתא!MIDI IRYA? HA CHED'ISA V'HA CHED'ISA!- Is this a proof? Perhaps this [case] is unique unto itself and the other is unique unto itself! (The fruits that are Telushin, severed, are considered severed for the Halachos of Shabbos and of Tum'ah while the fruits that are Mechubarin, attached, are only considered attached for the Halachos of Shabbos, not of Tum'ah)

32)[line 33]בהמה נעשית יד לאברBEHEMAH NA'ASEIS YAD L'EVER- [they argue] whether the animal is considered a "Yad" (handle) to one of its limbs. (If it is, the limb is able to receive Tum'as Ochlin if the animal becomes wet and subsequently touches a source of Tum'ah.)

33)[line 36]אוחז בקטן ואין גדול עולה עמוOCHEZ B'KATAN V'EIN GADOL OLEH IMO- [they argue whether a segment that is partially detached from an object is considered part of the object] when the object cannot be lifted by grasping [and lifting] the segment

34)[last line]שנפרס ומעורה במקצתSHE'NIFRAS U'ME'URAH B'MIKTZAS- that was cut but is still partially attached

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