[55a - 22 lines; 55b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]שיעורן בכדי סיכת קטן ועד לוגSHI'URAN BI'CHDEI SICHAS KATAN V'AD LOG- their amount [for susceptibility to Tum'ah] is the amount of oil needed to anoint the small finger of a day-old infant up to a Log

2)[line 2]מלוג עד סאה ברביעיתMI'LOG AD SA'AH B'REVI'IS- [if the shards come from a vessel that originally held] from a Log up to a Sa'ah, [then the shards can become Tamei if they can still hold at least] a quarter of a Log

3)[line 5]סאתים כלמעלהSASAYIM KIL'MAILAH- a Sa'ah itself is like above; i.e. like more than a Sa'ah, and its shards require the next level of residual capacity to retain susceptibility to Tum'ah

4)[line 7]התם לחומראHASAM L'CHUMRA- there, [in the case of that Mishnah and Beraisa, Rav Nachman agrees that we interpret "up to and including" to adopt] to the stringent position. This means that in the case of a broken earthenware vessel, it is a stringency to belong to the lower level, since the shards will require only a smaller residual capacity to retain susceptibility to Tum'ah.

5)[line 9]חוץ מכגריס של כתמים להקלCHUTZ MIK'GRIS SHEL KESAMIM L'HAKEL - except for a stain the size of a bean, which is treated leniently. (KESAMIM)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she feels the blood emerge or not, or if she experienced bleeding only one time or for the entire seven days. However, if she did not feel or see any blood emerge from her body, but she found a Kesem (stain) of blood on her body or on her undergarments, there are certain instances in which Chazal rule leniently and she is not Temei'ah.

(b)The leniencies of Kesamim are that the woman is only Temei'ah if:

1.the bloodstain is the size of a "k'Gris v'Od" (slightly larger than a Cilician bean, approximately 18 X 18 mm);

2.the bloodstain is found on a substance that is Mekabel Tum'ah (able to become Tamei);

3.the bloodstain was not found on a colored garment;

4.there is no other reasonable explanation for the source of the blood (such as if the woman was cleaning raw fish or if she found the stain after she walked through a meat market).

6)[line 14]חותך מעובר שבמעיה מותר באכילהCHOSESCH ME'UBAR SHEB'ME'EHA MUTAR BA'ACHILAH- [if a person] cuts off limbs from the fetus in the animal's womb [before the mother is slaughtered, leaving the limbs inside], it is permissible to eat

7)[line 15]מן הטחול ומן הכליות אסור באכילהMIN HA'TECHOL U'MIN HA'KELAYOS ASUR BA'ACHILAH - [if one detaches parts] from the spleen or from the kidneys [of the animal itself, then even if it remains inside the animal at the time the animal is slaughtered,] it is prohibited for consumption. (EVER MIN HA'CHAI)

(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a limb that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).

(b)The prohibition for Benei Yisrael to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). If the limb contains only flesh (e.g. the tongue or heart), one receive lashes for eating a k'Zayis of flesh. If the limb contains bones, sinews and flesh, then the bone and sinews may be combined with the flesh to make up a k'Zayis if the limb is eaten in its natural state (i.e. if the flesh was not detached from the limb prior to its consumption). One does not receive lashes for eating less than a k'Zayis, even if he ate an entire limb. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros Ch. 5; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #452)

(c)The prohibition for Nochrim to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel" - "... from all of the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam may eat from all of the trees, but he may not eat Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan. Other sages learn the prohibition from different verses (ibid.).

8)[line 21]לקתה בכוליא אחת, טרפהLAKSAH B'CHULYA ACHAS, TEREIFAH- if the animal becomes diseased in one kidney, it is a Tereifah

9)[line 22]והוא דמטאי לקותא למקום חריץV'HU D'MATA'I LEKUSA LI'MKOM CHARITZ- provided that the disease reaches the place of the kidney's furrow; i.e. the center of the kidney where the various tubes are attached


10)[line 1]לחיורא דתותי מתניL'CHIVRA D'SUSEI MASNEI- the white part under the animal's loins

11)[line 3]טרופאי דמערבאTERUFA'EI D'MA'ARAVA- the Tereifah-experts of Eretz Yisrael (lit. of the west)

12)[line 5]בקולשיהB'KULSHEI- in the bottom of the spleen

13)[line 6]בסומכיהB'SUMCHEI- in the thicker part of the spleen

14)[line 6]אי אישתייר ביה כעובי דינר זהבIY ISHTAYER BEI K'OVI DINAR ZAHAV- if a Dinar's thickness [of flesh] remained in it intact [when the thick end of the spleen was punctured]

15)[line 11]מוגלאMUGLA- (O.F. cuiture) pus

16)[line 12]מים זכיןMAYIM ZACHIN- clear fluid

17)[line 14]חותכה מכאן ומתהCHOSCHAH MI'KAN U'MESAH- if one cuts it from here (the veins that are cut during Shechitah, or in the sinew of its neck) the animal dies

18)[line 14]חותכה מכאן וחיתהCHOSCHAH MI'KAN V'CHAYESAH- if one cuts it from here (its shoulder, where the cut is closer to the heart) the animal lives

19)[line 15]דציליD'TZILEI- that [the liquid] is clear

20)[line 15]עכיריACHIREI- it is cloudy

21)[line 16]הכוליא שהקטינהHA'CHULYA SHE'HIKTINAH- a kidney that shrank in size

22)[line 16]בדקה, עד כפולB'DAKAH, AD K'POL- in the case of a small animal, [the animal is a Tereifah when the kidney shrank] to the size of a bean

23)[line 16]בגסה, עד כענבה בינוניתB'GASAH, AD K'ANAVAH BEINONIS- in the case of a large animal, [the animal is a Tereifah when the kidney shrank] to the size of a medium grape

24)[line 17]לעיטהLE'ITAH- (a) Rav Yehudah's opinion: to put food in an animal's throat down to a place where it can still bring it up; (b) Rav Chisda's opinion: to put food in an animal's throat with one's hand down to a place where it cannot bring it up

25)[line 19]האם הוא טרפחת, והיא שלפוחיתHA'EM HU TARPACHAS, V'HI SHALFUCHIS- the "Em" is the "Tarpachas," which is the "Shalfuchis," or the womb of the animal

26)[line 24]דיכריDICHREI- rams

27)[line 25]בקייטאB'KAITA- in summer

28)[line 25]אייתי משיכלי חיוריAISI MESHICHLEI CHIVREI- bring basins of white earthenware

29)[line 26]אי הדרן ברייןIY HADRAN BARYAN- if the lungs return to their healthy state

30)[line 27]בסיתואB'SISVA- in winter

31)[line 27]אייתי משיכלי שחומיAISI MESHICHLEI SHECHUMEI- bring basins of dark earthenware

32)[line 29]הגלודהHA'GELUDAH- an animal whose hide is stripped off (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:11)

33)[line 34]ואם נשתייר בו כסלעV'IM NISHTAYER BO K'SELA- and if there remains in it (the skin of a flayed animal) the size of a Sela, [it is Kosher]

34)[line 37]דאריך וקטיןD'ARICH V'KATIN- that it is long and thin (the piece of skin which covers the spine)

35)[line 38]רבי נהוראיREBBI NEHORAI- (a) Rebbi Nechemyah, student of Rebbi Akiva, who was known as Rebbi Meir, "the one who lights up [the eyes of the wise through his Halachic teachings]." The translation of "Meir" in Aramaic is "Nehorai" (Eruvin 13b); (b) Rebbi Elazar ben Arach, student of Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai, known as Rebbi Nehorai for the same reason as above (ibid.)

36)[line 39]ראשי פרקיםROSHEI PERAKIM- the main joints of the body; i.e. on all the vertebrae and the joints of the bones of the leg and thigh

37)[line 40]מקום טיבורוMEKOM TIBURO- at the place of the navel

38)[line 43]בית הפרסותBEIS HA'PERASOS- the hooves, the feet below the knee

39)[line 45]אלו שעורותיהן כבשרןELU SHE'OROSEIHEN K'VESARAN- the skins of the following are treated like their flesh

40)[line 46]אל תקניטניAL TAKNITEINI- do not agitate me [with your arguments]

41)[line 46]שבלשון יחיד אני שונה אותהSHEBI'LSHON YACHID ANI SHOHEN OSAH- for I teach it as representing an individual's opinion and not the view of the majority