[54a - 50 lines; 54b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]קנה נקובתו בכאיסרKANEH NEKUVASO BECH'ISAR- the trachea is rendered a Tereifah if its puncture is at least the size of an Isar (see Background to Chulin 138:1)

2)[line 2]בתר דבעיא, הדר פשטהBASAR D'BE'AYA, HADAR PESHATAH- after he asked the question, he then answered it

3)[line 7]האלקים! מורי בה רב מכפא ועד אטמאHA'ELOKIM! MORI BAH RAV MI'KAPA V'AD ATMA- Indeed! (using "ha'Elokim," which is an oath, for emphasis) Rav would rule in such cases [that an even greater degree of examination is necessary] from the spoon to the thigh

4)[line 8]כפא דידאKAPA DI'YADA- lit. the spoon of the foreleg; i.e. the shoulder blade

5)[line 9]מכפא דמוחאMI'KAPA D'MOCHA- lit. from the spoon of the brain; i.e. the skull

6)[line 15]ולא נהירא ליה...?V'LO NEHIRA LEI...?- did he not remember...?

7)[line 16]רבי רבהREBBI RABAH- the great Rebbi (Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi

8)[line 18]ומאן גבר הוא? גבר בכולא!U'MAN GAVAR HU? GAVAR B'CHULA!- and what is he great in? He is great in everything (Torah and piety)!

9)[line 20]ברםBARAM- in truth

10)[line 21]שמוטה ושחוטהSHEMUTAH U'SHECHUTAH- [if the trachea was found to be] dislodged and severed [after Shechitah]

11)[line 23]יביא ויקיףYAVI V'YAKIF- one should bring a knife and sever the trachea again in another place and then compare the new cut with the Shechitah cut; if the cuts are similar then the animal is forbidden

12)[line 26]שב שמעתתאSHEV SHEMAITSA- this is a mnemonic device that refers to the seven ("Shev") additional types of Tereifos cited by the Gemara from the teachings of the Amora'im to question the count of eighteen Tereifos of Tana d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael, as follows (the Gemara will answer the question at the end of 54b):

1."Buka d'Atma d'Shaf mi'Duchtei" (see Background to Chulin 42b:3:b:13)

2."Laksah b'Chilya Achas" (Chulin 42b:3:b:14)

3."Nikev [ha'Techol]" (Chulin 42b:3:b:1:i)

4."Simanim she'Nidaldelu b'Ruban" (Chulin 42b:3:b:15)

5."Ne'ekrah Tzela mi'Ikarah" (Chulin 42b:3:b:16)

6."Gulgoles she'Nechbesah b'Rubah" (Chulin 42b:3:b:17)

7."Basar ha'Chofeh Es Rov ha'Keres b'Rubo" (Chulin 42b3:b:18)

13)[line 27]דבי יוסף רישבאD'VEI YOSEF RISHBA- the house of Yosef the trapper

14)[line 27]מחו בגידא נשיא וקטליMACHU B'GIDA NASHYA V'KATLEI- they would strike an animal on the sciatic nerve and cause it to die

15)[line 31]בכוליאB'CHULYA- in the kidney

16)[line 34]גמירי דאי בדרי לה סמא חייאGEMIREI D'IY BADREI LAH SAMA CHAYA- we have a tradition that if certain medicines would be spread on the wound, the animal would live

17)[line 36]נסדקהNISDEKAH- if it (the trachea) was split down its length

18)[line 37]נפחתה הגולגולתNIFCHESAH HA'GULGOLES- if the skull is diminished [but the membrane was not punctured]

19)[line 38]בית חללוBEIS CHALALO- the cavity of the heart

20)[line 41]המסס ובית הכוסות שניקבו זה את זהHEMSES U'VEIS HA'KOSOS SHE'NIKVU ZEH LA'ZEH- if the wall between the Hemses (omasum) and the Beis ha'Kosos (recticulum) was punctured. These are the second and third stomachs of a ruminant. The second stomach has a very thick, double wall.

21)[line 42]הטחולHA'TECHOL- the spleen

22)[line 42]הכליותHA'KELAYOS- the kidneys

23)[line 42]לחי התחתוןLECHI HA'TACHTON- the lower jaw

24)[line 43]האםHA'EM- the womb

25)[line 43]וחרותה בידי שמיםV'CHARUSAH BI'YEDEI SHAMAYIM- the animal had a lung that shriveled and became hard like a palm branch as a result of being frightened by natural causes

26)[line 44]הגלודהHA'GELUDAH- an animal whose hide is stripped off

27)[line 45]אלו טריפות דוקאELU TEREIFOS DAVKA- [Rebbi Yochanan says that the phrase in the Mishnah (42a),] "These are the animals which are Tereifos," is precise (i.e. nothing is omitted)

28)[line 45]אלו כשרות דוקאELU KESHEROS DAVKA- [Reish Lakish says that the phrase in the Mishnah (42a),] "These are the animals which are Kosher," is precise

29)[line 48]בוקא דאטמאBUKA D'ATMA- the ball of the femur, the thigh bone at the point that it joins to the hip bone

30)[line 48]דשף מדוכתיהD'SHAF MI'DUCHTEI- that was dislocated (lit. that slipped from its place). The joint of the hip is a ball-and-socket joint; according to RASHI, the small round ligaments ("Nivei") that attach the bones inside the joint are torn

54b----------------------------------------54b

31)[line 10]איפסיק ניביהIFSIK NIVEI- if its ligament was severed [the animal is a Tereifah]

32)[line 12]דמתעכלא אתעכוליD'MIS'ACHLA IS'ACHULEI- whose [ligament] was decayed

33)[line 13]אתון דלא מיתחמי לכון שיעוראATUN D'LO MISCHAMEI LECHON SHI'URA- you, who have never seen the measure [of an Italian Isar coin]

34)[line 14]שעוריה בדינרא קורדינאהSHI'UREI B'DINRA KURDINA'AH- its measure (the measure of the missing trachea) is the equivalent of a Dinar of Cordyene (a district lying to the east of the Tigris River, south of Armenia)

35)[line 14]והוי כפשיטא זוטרתיV'HAVEI K'PESHITA ZUTRESI- and it is like the size of the small Peshita coin

36)[line 16]רבי חנא פתוראהREBBI CHANA PESORA'AH- Rebbi Chana the moneychanger (who sits at his table, "Pesora," and changes money for his clients)

37)[line 16]עילא מינאי הוה קאי בר נפחאEILA MINA'I HAVAH KAI BAR NAFCHA- above me was standing Bar Nafcha

38)[line 17]ובעא מיני דינרא קורדונאה לשערי ביה טריפתאU'VA'A MINI DINRA KURDINA'AH L'SHA'AREI BEI TEREIFTA- and he asked from me a Dinar of Cordyene (see above, entry #34) to measure with it a possible Tereifah

39)[line 18]ובעי למיקם מקמיה ולא שבקניU'VA'I L'MEIKAM MI'KAMEI V'LO SHAVKANI- and I wanted to rise before him (since he was a Talmid Chacham) but he would not let me

40)[line 19]בעלי אומניותBA'ALEI UMNIYOS- tradesmen

41)[line 21]כל בעלי אומניות עומדים מפניהםKOL BA'ALEI UMNIYOS OMDIN MI'PENEIHEM - all tradesmen would rise before them and welcome them (BIKURIM)

(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. In order to glorify the Mitzvah (and to fulfill the precept of "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With multitudes of people is the King's glory" - Mishlei 14:28), many fruit-growers from one area join in a large procession to bring their Bikurim together. When they lodge for the night, they camp in a town square to publicize their purpose and to avoid entering an Ohel ha'Tum'ah. A flautist and an ox adorned with gilded horns and an olive wreath (hinting that Bikurim are brought from the seven species - see below, (c)) precede the procession. As they approach Yerushalayim, they send word of their impending arrival and arrange their fruits in decorative baskets. The dignitaries of the city come forth to greet them. When they enter the city, all of the tradesmen stand and greet them. They proceed through the city streets until they arrive at the Temple Mount.

(b)Each farmer enters the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).

(c)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Yisrael. Other, "immigrant," species can be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these 7 species will always be part of the land - heard once from a leading botanist -MK.)

(d)In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit, without reciting the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if he brings them between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Gemara Pesachim 36b and Rashi there).

(e)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be brought back into Yerushalayim and eaten there.

(f)According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, at one point in the process of bringing the Bikurim, the owner of the fruits, together with the Kohen, performs Tenufah (see Background to Menachos 60:3) on the basket of Bikurim.

42)[line 29]כסלע כיתר מכסלע כאיסר כיתר מכאיסרK'SELA K'YESER MICH'SELA K'ISAR K'YESER MICH'ISAR- when the Chachamim required the size of a Sela (RASHI - a skull missing bone the size of a Sela is a Tereifah; RABEINU TAM - if all the skin was removed but a Sela remains, it is Kosher; TOSFOS - if there is a hole the size of a Sela in the outer Keres, it is Tereifah), exactly the size of a Sela is the same as more than a Sela, and exactly the size of an Isar is the same as more than an Isar (an animal can have a hole in its trachea up to the size of an Isar and still be Kosher)

43)[line 31]עד ולא עד בכללAD V'LO AD BI'CHLAL (AD V'AD BI'CHLAL / AD V'LO AD BI'CHLAL)

The word "Ad" - "until" - has two possible meanings. It may include the target of the phrase (Ad v'Ad bi'Chlal), or it may include everything up to but not including the target of the phrase (Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chlal).

44)[line 32]חבל היוצא מן המטה עד חמשה טפחים טהורCHEVEL HA'YOTZEI MIN HA'MITAH AD CHAMISHAH TEFACHIM TAHOR- a rope that extends from a bed up to a length of five Tefachim is Tahor

45)[line 36]הדקין שבכלי חרסHA'DAKIN SHEB'CHLEI CHERES- small earthenware vessels

46)[line 36]הן וקרקרותיהן ודופנותיהם יושבין שלא מסומכיןHEN V'KARKEROSEIHEN V'DOFNOSEIHEM YOSHVIN SHE'LO MESUMACHIN- when [the vessels] themselves, their bottoms, or and their walls (when broken off) can still contain liquid while sitting on a flat surface without external support

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