CHULIN 30 (19 Teves) - Dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael Avraham Abba ben Harav Chaim Binyamin Ze'ev Krieger ZT"L, author of Yad Yisrael (on Rambam) and many other Sefarim. Dedicated by his granddaughter and her husband, Mr. and Mrs. Avi and Lily Berger, of Queens, New York.

[30a - 43 lines; 30b - 39 lines]

1)[line 1]סתימתאהSETIMTA'AH- the unnamed authority; this is one of the many Mishnayos and Beraisa'os authored by Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon that were quoted anonymously (RASHI) (The word "Setimta'ah" is also used to refer to Rebbi Yosi bar Yehudah (Eruvin 38b), Rebbi Akiva (Megilah 2a), and Rebbi Menachem (Kesuvos 101b))

2)[line 3]דשחט חד גברא בשני סודריםD'SHACHIT CHAD GAVRA BI'SHNEI SUDARIM- one person slaughtered [an animal] wearing two head coverings (during the Shechitah, another person changed his head covering)

3a)[line 6]ובמועד, לשמו פטור, שלא לשמו חייבUV'MO'ED, LISHMO PATUR, SHE'LO LISHMO CHAVAV- and during the holiday (Pesach) [one who slaughters the Korban Pesach] Lishmo (for its own sake) is exempt [from punishment], while one who slaughters it she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. for the sake of another Korban) is liable [to punishment]

b)[line 6]ובמועד, לשמו פטור, שלא לשמו חייבUV'MO'ED, LISHMO PATUR, SHE'LO LISHMO CHAVAV (HA'SHOCHET ES HA'PESACH AL HE'CHAMETZ / STAM PESACH BI'SHE'AR YEMOS HA'SHANAH SHELAMIM)

[I] HA'SHOCHET ES HA'PESACH AL HE'CHAMETZ (KORBAN PESACH)

(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is a male lamb or goat within its first year.

(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.

(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places — Pesachim 86a.)

(d)If the person who slaughters the Pesach, the Kohen who casts the blood on the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen who burns the Eimurim on the Mizbe'ach or one of the people of the Chaburah have one k'Zayis or more of Chametz in their possession at the time that the Pesach is slaughtered, they have transgressed the prohibition from the verse, "Lo Sishchat Al Chametz Dam Zivchi" (Shemos 34:25). The sacrifice itself is Kosher but the person is liable to Malkus if he received the proper warning (Pesachim 63a, RAMBAM Hilchos Korban Pesach 1:5). (The Mishnah brought by our Sugya discusses slaughtering, during Pesach, the Korban Pesach and other Korbanos "Al Chametz." The same Halachah of not slaughtering the Korban Pesach while in possession of Chametz applies to other Korbanos offered on Pesach, as well.)

[II] MOSAR HA'PESACH SHE'KAREV SHELAMIM

(a)If a Korban Pesach or a Korban Chatas is offered she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. for the sake of another Korban), it is Pasul. All other Korbanos are Kosher; however, the owner must bring another sacrifice to fulfill his obligation.

(b)One only transgresses the Lo Sa'aseh of "Lo Sishchat Al Chametz Dam Zivchi" if the Korban Pesach that he is offering is valid, and is slaughtered on Erev Pesach Lishmo while in possession of Chametz. If the Korban was slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo, it is Pasul and the owner does not transgress the Lo Sa'aseh.

(c)If an animal was set aside as a Korban Pesach, but was not offered as a Korban Pesach for some reason (e.g. because it was lost on the 14th of Nisan), it is called "Mosar ha'Pesach" and may be offered as a Korban Shelamim. The Mosar ha'Pesach is identical to a Shelamim except that it is eaten only for one day and one night, instead of two days and the intervening night.

(d)If a person who designated as his Korban Pesach an animal that got lost, then designated another animal and subsequently found the first one, the extra animal is also offered as a Korban Shelamim.

(e)Some say that in order to become like a Shelamim the Mosar ha'Pesach needs an Akirah (see TOSFOS to Pesachim 60b DH b'She'ar). If the animal is slaughtered without Akirah, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul since it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b). The act of slaughtering the animal she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. slaughtering it for the sake of offering a Shelamim or Olah), however, qualifies as an Akirah and makes the animal into a Shelamim.

(f)One who offers a Mosar ha'Pesach during the week of Pesach as a Korban Pesach does not transgress the Lo Sa'aseh, since the Korban is Pasul. If he offers it then she'Lo Lishmo, he transgresses the Lo Sa'aseh, since the Korban is Kosher.

4)[line 7]והוינן בהV'HAVINAN BAH- and we ask about it

5)[line 10]פסח בשאר ימות השנה בעי עקירהPESACH BI'SHE'AR YEMOS HA'SHANAH BA'I AKIRAH

See above, entry #3b:II:e.

6)[line 11]נזרקה מפי חבורהNIZREKAH MI'PI CHABURAH- (a) it came out of our group learning; it is not clear who said it (RABEINU GERSHOM); (b) all of the members of our learning group agreed to this (RASHI to Pesachim 64a)

7)[line 18]כיון דשחט ביה פורתאKEIVAN D'SHACHAT BEI PURTA- as soon as he began the incision with the Shechitah knife (lit. as soon as he performed the first bit of the Shechitah)

8)[line 21]מדמי פסח מי אידחיMI'DEMEI PESACH MI IDCHI?! - Is it "pushed away" from the Halachah of the redemption value of a Korban Pesach?! (PIDYON HEKDESH)

(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash in its present state, the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh.

(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf. An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish) (See next entry).

9)[line 22]העמדה והערכהHA'AMADAH V'HA'ARACHAH

(a)The verses referring to a Korban that became unfit due to a Mum state, "v'He'emid Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen, v'He'erich ha'Kohen Osah" - "He shall make the animal stand before the Kohen and the Kohen shall appraise it" (Vayikra 27:11-12). From here we learn that in order for an animal with a Mum to be appraised and redeemed, it must be alive.

(b)For the opinions of the Rabanan and Rebbi Shimon with regard to Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah, see Charts to Temurah 32b, #8.

10)[line 23]מפרכסתMEFARCHESES- it is convulsing

11)[line 23]הרי היא כחיה לכל דבריהHAREI HI K'CHAYAH L'CHOL DEVAREHA- it is considered alive for all Halachic purposes [including that which it is considered to be eligible for Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah]

12)[line 25]השוחט בשנים ושלשה מקומותHA'SHOCHET BI'SHENAYIM U'SHELOSHAH MEKOMOS- (a) one who begins the Shechitah at one place on the neck of the animal and immediately continues in another place, above or below the first incision (RASHI); (b) one who makes separate incisions in the circumference of the Siman (either on the same level of the Siman or at different levels), in such a way that the two or three cuts combine to comprise a majority of the width of the Siman (SHE'ILTOS, cited by TOSFOS DH ha'Shochet); (c) one who cuts two different Simanim; that is, the cuts through the two Simanim at different levels, one higher up on the neck, and one lower down on the neck (RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by Tosfos ibid.) (As Tosfos points out, since there are only two Simanim, there can never be "three" cuts in different places according to Rabeinu Chananel's explanation — (see Insights)

13)[line 27]שחיטה מפורעתSHECHITAH MEFURA'AS- an exposed, revealed incision (that is easy to see, which is accomplished only with a straight incision, and not an incision made in a two or three places)

14)[line 30]"חֵץ (שוחט) שָׁחוּט לְשׁוֹנָם; מִרְמָה דִבֵּר ...""CHETZ SHACHUT LESHONAM; MIRMAH DIBER ..."- "Their tongue is a sharpened arrow; it speaks deceit; [one speaks peacefully to his neighbor with his mouth, but in his heart he lies in ambush for him.]" (Yirmeyahu 9:7) - Shechitah is compared to an arrow, which cuts in one place only.

30b----------------------------------------30b

15)[line 4]הוא מותיב לה, והוא מפרק להHU MOSIV LAH, V'HU MEFAREK LAH- he asked the question and he himself answered it

16)[line 5]בשחיטה העשויה כקולמוסBI'SHECHITAH HA'ASUYAH K'KULMUS- performing the Shechitah with a diagonal incision, the way a feather is cut to fashion a feather pen (RASHI)

17)[line 6]תוראTORA- bull

18)[line 8]שקל משופרי שופריSHAKAL MI'SHUFREI SHUFREI- he took [meat] from the choicest parts

19a)[line 10]החליד את הסכין בין סימן לסימן ופסקוHECHELID ES HA'SAKIN BEIN SIMAN L'SIMAN U'FASKO- a Shochet inserted the knife into the neck of the animal in between the trachea and the esophagus and cut it (the esophagus, which is underneath the trachea). [He then extracted the knife and cut the trachea in the usual manner — RASHI]

b)[line 11]תחת העורTACHAS HA'OR- underneath the skin, i.e. inserting the knife into the skin that covers the trachea (instead of slicing the skin) and then performing Shechitah in the usual manner from there

20a)[line 19]מטליתMATLIS- a cloth that is wrapped around the animal's neck (such as sheep that are Kevunos, i.e. wrapped with cloth around their wool so that they should not get dirty — Shabbos 52b)

b)[line 20]צמר מסובךTZEMER MESUBACH- matted wool (O.F. feltred - padded; pressed together like felt, a cloth made of wool fibers that have been pressed together and not woven)

21)[line 21]החליד במיעוט סימניםHECHELID B'MI'UT SIMANIM- (a) after performing the majority of the Shechitah properly, the Shochet extracted the knife, reinserted it into the neck (Hagramah) and completed the remainder (minor part) of the Shechitah (RASHI); (b) performing Hagramah during the first part of the Shechitah (the minority) and then completing it properly (TOSFOS); (c) after cutting a majority of the first Siman properly, the Shochet inserted the knife underneath (or behind) the remaining minority of the first Siman and cut the second Siman (TOSFOS, citing RABEINU OSHAYA)

22)[line 25]התיז את הראש בבת אחתHITIZ ES HA'ROSH B'VAS ACHAS- [performing an act of "Derasah," pressing the knife into the neck, without a sliding, cutting motion, and subsequently] (a) cutting off the head with one Shechitah motion (RAMBAN); (b) cutting both the trachea and esophagus with one Shechitah motion (RASHBA, RAN)

23)[line 26]היה שוחט והתיז את הראש בבת אחתHAYAH SHOCHET V'HITIZ ES HA'ROSH B'VAS ACHAS- a Shochet was performing Shechitah and with one motion he (a) cut off the head (RAMBAN); (b) cut both the trachea and esophagus (RASHBA, RAN)

24)[line 26]אם יש בסכין מלא צוארIM YESH BA'SAKIN MELO TZAVAR- if the length of the knife is slightly longer than twice the width of the neck

25)[line 31]איזמלIZMEL- a razor (RASHI)

26)[line 32]"חץ שחוט ...""CHETZ SHACHUT ..."- see above, entry #14; here Shechitah is compared to an arrow in that it is drawn back on the bow

27)[line 34]ומשךU'MASHACH- and he pulled, drew back

28)[line 35]"וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מָאתַיִם צִנָּה זָהָב שָׁחוּט ...""VA'YA'AS HA'MELECH SHLOMO MASAYIM TZINAH ZAHAV SHACHUT ..."- "And King Shlomo made two hundred sets of mail out of pulled gold ..." (Melachim I 10:17). In order to fashion flexible armor, Shlomo ha'Melech stretched gold into the desired shape.

29)[line 36]שנטווה כחוט הואSHE'NITVEH K'CHUT HU- that it is spun like thread

30)[line 37]הוה בדיק ליה גיראHAVAH BADIK LEI GIRA- would check arrowheads [for nicks or defects that would invalidate them for use in Shechitah] for him

31)[line 38]ושחט בה עופא בהדי דפרחV'SHACHAT BAH OFA B'HADEI D'FARACH- and he would slaughter a bird with it as [the bird] was flying

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