CHANGING THE STATUS OF A KORBAN
Objection (Abaye): Rava's question remains, for R. Yochanan taught that this Stam (anonymous) Beraisa is the opinion of R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, but Chachamim permit two to slaughter one Korban!
Even according to R. Elazar, we may distinguish in the case of a valid Parah, if the Shochet wore one hat at the start of Shechitah, and a different hat at the end of Shechitah (only the latter should become Tamei)!
Answer #2 (Abaye): We must say that the Mishnah teaches only cases when the Parah is disqualified.
Question (Rav Idi bar Avin - Mishnah): If a Korban Pesach (was not offered on Erev Pesach, rather,) was slaughtered during Pesach by someone who had Chametz:
If he slaughtered it l'Shem (to be) Korban Pesach (it is invalid, so) he is exempt for slaughtering it while owning Chametz;
If he slaughtered it l'Shem a different Korban (it is valid, so) he is liable.
Version #1 - Rashi - Question (Inference): He is liable only because he intended for a different Korban. Without special intent, he would be exempt!
Since it was not offered on Erev Pesach, the Korban is destined to be a Shelamim. Without special intent, it should be a valid Shelamim, and he should be liable!
Version #2 - Tosfos - Question: Since it was not offered on Erev Pesach, the Korban is destined to be a Shelamim. Even if he intended l'Shem Pesach, it should be valid (like a Shelamim), and he should be liable! (end of Version #2)
Answer: We must say that it does not become a Shelamim automatically. One must change its status from a Pesach to make it a Shelamim.
Rejection (R. Chiya bar Gamda): No. The case is, the owners were Teme'im on Erev Pesach, so the Korban is destined to be offered l'Shem Pesach on Pesach Sheni.
Only in this case, its status must be changed to make it a Shelamim. However, if the owners (were Tehorim and) brought a different Korban on Erev Pesach, and this will not be used for a Pesach, it is automatically a Shelamim.
(Culmination of Rav Idi's question): The Mishnah is reasonable if the entire Shechitah is considered Shechitah. The Korban became Pasul at the beginning of the Shechitah (it is a Pesach at the wrong time), so he is exempt.
However, if only the end is considered Shechitah, at the start of Shechitah (i.e. after cutting more than half the Kaneh, or any amount of the Veshet), it became unusable for Pesach (Sheni, since it will not live until then). It becomes a Shelamim. He should be liable for Shechitah of a Shelamim (while owning Chametz during Pesach)!
Answer (Abaye): Granted, once he started Shechitah, it became unusable for Pesach Sheni. However, it was destined to be redeemed, and to use the redemption money to buy another Pesach. (Therefore, it does not automatically become a Shelamim.)
Question: We can redeem an animal only if it can stand up for appraisal!
Answer: It can be redeemed!
We learned that if both Simanim or their majority was slaughtered, and the animal is still quivering, it is considered alive in every way. (I.e. it can be appraised. Tosfos - this is derived from a Mishnah (117b).)
(Rav): If one slaughters in two or three places, this is valid.
(Shmuel and Reish Lakish): This is invalid. Shechitah must be exposed.
Question (R. Elazar - Mishnah): If two people are holding knives and slaughter, even one above and one below, this is valid.
Such a Shechitah is not exposed, yet it is valid!
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): It means that if two are holding a knife, even they hold it on opposite ends, the Shechitah is Kosher.
Question (R. Aba - Beraisa): We are not concerned lest they make it a Treifah.
Granted, if each cuts with his own knife, one might have thought that each will rely on the other to cut the majority of the Siman (and neither will cut the majority).
However, if they cut with one knife, the concern is not lest they make it a Treifah, rather, Derasah (they will press on the knife)!
Answer (R. Avin): Indeed, the Beraisa should say 'we are not concerned for Derasah.'
Question (R. Avin - Beraisa): If he slaughtered the Veshet below and the Kaneh above or vice-versa, this is Kosher.
Such a Shechitah is not exposed!
Answer (R. Avin): He slaughtered on a slant. It is exposed.
An ox was slaughtered in two or three places. R. Yitzchak bar Shmuel took from the choice parts to eat.
Version #1 - Rashi (R. Zeira): We learn from you that the Mishnah permits Shechitah done by two people, each holding his own knife.
Version #2 - Tosfos - Question (R. Zeira): Didn't you teach us that when the Mishnah permits Shechitah done by two people, this is when they are holding one knife?!
(Rav Yehudah): Chaladah (Shechitah when the knife is covered) between the Simanim is invalid. If he cut when the knife was under the skin, this is Kosher.
Question: We already learned the first law in a Mishnah!
(Mishnah - R. Yeshevav): If he Hichlid the knife under the second Siman and cut it, the animal is a Neveilah;
R. Akiva says, it is a Treifah.
Answer: One might have thought that the Mishnah applies only when he cut (the second Siman) from the back of the neck towards the front; but when he cuts from the front towards the back, it is Kosher. Rav Yehudah teaches that this is not so.
(Rav Yehudah): If he cut when the knife was under the skin, this is Kosher.
(Bei Rav): I do not know what the law is in this case.
Question: What would Bei Rav say if the knife was under a cloth, or covered by the animal's wool?
This question is unresolved.
Question (Rav Papa): What is the law if he cut the minority of the Simanim (Rashi - the remaining minority, after cutting the majority; Tosfos - the beginning of the Shechitah) when the knife was covered?
This question is unresolved.
(Mishnah): If one slaughters two heads at once, they are Kosher;
If two people are holding a knife, even if one (holds) above and the other below, their Shechitah is Kosher.
If one chops off the head at once, this is invalid;
If he slaughtered and chopped off the head, if the knife is as long as the neck, this is Kosher;
If he slaughtered and chopped off the heads of two animals, if the knife is as long as one neck, this is Kosher.
This is when he cut in only one direction, either moving the knife away from himself or drawing it towards himself. If he cut in both directions, no matter how small the knife is, even a tiny razor, the Shechitah is valid.
(Gemara) Question: What is the source (that one must slide the knife, not chop)?
Answer #1 (Shmuel): "An arrow Shachat" (teaches that Shechitah is drawn, like an arrow).
Answer #2 (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "V'Shachat" is an expression of drawing -"Gold Shachat" (Shechitah is drawn, like gold).
Also, it says "an arrow Shachat".
Question: Why is the second verse needed?
Answer: One might have thought that the first verse discusses gold spun like a thread.