1)ONE WHO DIES WITHOUT SONS
(a)(R. Yitzchak): "Yerushas Peleitah l'Vinyamin v'Lo Yimacheh Shevet mi'Yisrael" teaches that they stipulated about Binyamin (after the war, when very few Bnei Binyamin remained) that a daughter of a son will not inherit with the brothers (lest she marry into a different tribe, and a large portion of Binyamin's inheritance will go to other tribes).
(b)(R. Yochanan): Hash-m hates one who dies without a son to inherit him;
1.It says "v'Ha'avartem Es Nachalso l'Vito", similar to "Yom Evrah."
(c)(R. Yochanan or R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "Asher Ein Chalifos Lamo v'Lo Yar'u Elokim" refers to one who dies without a son;
(d)(The other of R. Yochanan and R. Yehoshua ben Levi): This is one who dies without a Talmid.
(e)Surely, R. Yochanan said the latter, for he would say (to console mourners) 'this is a bone (Rashbam - tooth) from my tenth son' (all died in his lifetime. He would not say this if he held that such a person does not fear Hash-m!)
(f)Question: If so, R. Yehoshua ben Levi must have said the former. However, R. Yehoshua ben Levi would (interrupt learning to) go to a house of mourning only for one who died without a son;
1.Surely, he does not say that such a person does not fear Hash-m. He must say that the verse discusses one who dies without a Talmid, and R. Yochanan says that it discusses one who dies without a son;
2.However, R. Yochanan publicized about himself that he lost all his sons!
(g)Answer: R. Yochanan agrees that the verse discusses one who dies without a Talmid;
1.R. Yochanan said in his Rebbi's name (but he himself disagrees) that it refers to one who dies without a son.
(h)Question (R. Pinchas ben Chama): "Ki Shachav David... v'Chi Mes Yo'av" - why does it say that David lied (with his fathers), and that Yo'av died?
(i)Answer (R. Pinchas): David left a son, so it says that he lied. Yo'av left no son, so it says that he died.
(j)Question: Yo'av left a son - "mi'Benei Yo'av Ovadyah..."!
(k)Correction: Rather, David left a son like himself. Yo'av did not leave a son like himself.
(l)(R. Pinchas ben Chama): Poverty in a man's house in worse than 50 plagues - "Yad Eloka Nog'ah Bi" (the 10 Makos in Mitzrayim are called the finger of Hash-m, so the hand is like 50), and Iyov's friends answered "Zeh Bocharta me'Oni".
(m)(R. Pinchas ben Chama): If a man has a sick person in his house, he should ask a Chacham to pray for him - "v'Ish Chacham Yechaperenah".
2)THE ORDER OF INHERITANCE
(a)(Mishnah): The general rule is: whoever has precedence to inherit, all his descendants have precedence. A father precedes his own descendants.
(b)Question (Rami bar Chama): Who has precedence to inherit a man (Esav), his paternal grandfather (Avraham) or his paternal uncle (Yishmael)?
(c)Answer (Rava - Mishnah): A father precedes his own descendants.
1.Rami bar Chama was distracted by another question, therefore he did not realize that the Mishnah answers his question.
(d)Question (Rami bar Chama): Who has precedence to inherit a man (Esav), his paternal grandfather (Avraham) or his brother (Yakov)?
(e)Answer (Rava - Mishnah): A father precedes his own descendants.
(f)Rami bar Chama does not consider this conclusive. Perhaps it means that a father precedes his own children, but not his children's children.
(g)Support (for the latter understanding - Mishnah): The general rule is, whoever has precedence to inherit, all his descendants have precedence;
1.If the father (Yitzchak) was alive, he would inherit before Avraham. Therefore, if Yitzchak is dead, his son (Yakov) inherits before Avraham.
(a)(Mishnah): Tzelafchad's daughters received three portions of Eretz Yisrael for an inheritance: the portion of Tzelafchad, who left Mitzrayim; Tzelafchad's share of Chefer's (his father) portion; and Tzelafchad's extra share of his father's portion, for Tzelafchad was a firstborn.