1) [line 4] NITZCHUM - he (Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai) prevailed over them (the Tzedukim, for his proof against them was conclusive)
2) [line 4] "VA'YOMRU YERUSHAS PELEITAH L'VINYAMIN, V'LO YIMACHEH SHEVET MI'YISRAEL.'" - "They said, 'The inheritance of the remnant shall remain for Binyamin, so that no tribe will be decimated from Yisrael.'" (Shoftim 21:17)
3) [line 5] V'LO YIMACHEH SHEVET MI'YISRAEL (PILEGESH B'GIVAH - The Concubine of Giv'ah)
(a) A civil war ensued after the tribe of Binyamin sympathized with certain men from the city of Giv'ah who performed abhorrent acts with the concubine of a Levi. The Levi dissected her dead body and sent the limbs to all of the tribes of Benei Yisrael to protest the iniquity. The apathy of the men of the tribe of Binyamin and their unwillingness to root out the evil in their midst caused Benei Yisrael to gather together and swear that no one would give their daughters to the men of Binyamin as a wife. They then waged war against the tribe of Binyamin, with confidence that they would achieve victory and avenge the iniquity.
(b) HaSh-m, however, caused Benei Yisrael to incur huge losses in the first two battles of the war because of various sins of lack of faith, first and foremost their unwillingness to avenge the honor of HaSh-m regarding Pesel Michah (the idol constructed by Michah -- see Shoftim 17-18). After they repented, He let them vanquish Binyamin to the extent that only six hundred men remained from the entire tribe of Binyamin. The other tribes regretted the loss and sought to find wives for these men, to rebuild their tribe.
(c) One plan used is mentioned in RASHI DH me'Anshei. Benei Yisrael discovered that the city of Yavesh Gil'ad had not joined in the oath or the battle. As such, they were guilty of treason and of siding with Binyamin. All of the men and older women of the city were put to death. Four hundred girls were kept alive and were given to four hundred men from Binyamin.
(d) For the remaining two hundred men, two more methods were employed. Inspecting the words of the oath, it was decided that the oath only restricted the men of Benei Yisrael from giving wives to the men of Binyamin ("Mimenu"). However, the children of those who took the oath were able to marry off their daughters to the men of the tribe of Binyamin. Next, the oath precluded giving wives to the men of Binyamin, but not the taking of those wives themselves, an event that Benei Yisrael allowed those men to perform (see RASHI to Bereishis 49:27). The events of this tragic time in Jewish history are recorded in Shoftim 19-21 and discussed in Gitin 6b and Yevamos 60b.
4) [line 10] MALEI ALAV EVRAH - becomes full of anger at him
5) [line 11] "YOM EVRAH HA'YOM HA'HU, [YOM TZARAH U'METZUKAH YOM SHO'AH U'MESHO'AH YOM CHOSHECH VA'AFELAH YOM ANAN VA'ARAFEL.]" - "That day is a day of wrath, [a day of trouble and torment, a day of ruin and desolation, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of cloud and dark cloud.]" (Tzefanyah 1:15)
6) [line 12] "[YISHMA KEL V'YA'ANEM V'YOSHEV KEDEM SELAH ASHER] EIN CHALIFOS LAMO V'LO YAR'U E-LOKIM." - "[May HaSh-m hear and humble them -- He Who sits from all time, forever -- those who] have no changing (replacement) to them and who do not fear HaSh-m." (Tehilim 55:20)
7) [line 15] DEIN GARMEI D'ASIRA'AH BIR - (a) this is the bone of my tenth deceased son (RASHI to Berachos 5b); (b) this is the tooth of my tenth deceased son (RASHBAM here, RABEINU CHANANEL to Berachos 5b); (c) this is a bone from the tenth meal that was given to comfort me the tenth time I was a mourner (ARUCH) (In this manner, Rebbi Yochanan comforted mourners.)
8) [line 17] BEI TAMYA - a house of mourners (see Mesoras ha'Shas to Berachos 6b)
9) [line 18] BEI MAN D'SHACHIV B'LO BENEI - a house of a person who died with no children
10) [line 18] "[AL TIVKU L'MES V'AL TANUDU LO,] BECHU VACHO LA'HOLECH [KI LO YASHUV OD V'RA'AH ES ERETZ MOLADTO.]" - "[Do not weep for the dead and do not shake your head for him,] rather, weep for the one that goes away [because he will never return and see the land of his birthplace.]" (Yirmeyahu 22:10)
11a) [line 21] HA DIDEI - this statement (that the verse is referring to a person who left no students) is his own [opinion]
b) [line 21] HA D'RABEI - this [other] statement (that the verse is referring to a person who left no children) is [the opinion] of his teacher
12) [line 21] SIMAN HADAD ANI V'CHACHAM - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the three statements of Rebbi Pinchas ben Chama that follow:
1. Hadad refers to "v'Hadad Shama b'Mitzrayim..." (line 22)
2. Ani refers to "Kasheh Aniyus b'Soch Beiso Shel Adam..." (line 27)
3. v'Chacham refers to "Kol she'Yesh Lo Choleh v'Soch Beiso, Yelech Etzel Chacham v'Yvakesh Alav Rachamim..." (line 29)
13) [line 22] "V'HADAD SHAMA B'MITZRAYIM KI SHACHAV DAVID IM AVOSAV V'CHI MES YO'AV SAR HA'TZAVA..." - "And Hadad heard in Egypt that David lay with his forefathers, and that Yo'av, the commander of the army, died..." (Melachim I 11:21) - Hadad, who was descended from the royal family of Edom, came to Egypt and was appointed as the governor of a province there.
14a) [line 23] SHECHIVAH - laying down to rest
b) [line 23] MISAH - death
15) [line 27] KASHEH ANIYUS - poverty is difficult
16) [line 27] "CHANUNI, CHANUNI, ATEM RE'AI, KI YAD E-LOKA NAG'AH BI." - "Pity me, pity me, you my friends, for the hand of HaSh-m has afflicted me." (Iyov 19:21) - The Gemara interprets the "hand" of HaSh-m to be an allusion to fifty different types of afflictions. Since the Torah says that HaSh-m brought upon Mitzrayim ten afflictions with His "finger" (Shemos 8:15), and since there are five fingers on a hand, the "hand" of HaSh-m refers to fifty afflictions (RASHBAM).
17) [line 28] "HISHAMER! AL TEFEN EL AVEN, KI AL ZEH BACHARTA ME'ONI." - "Be careful! Do not turn to the sinful, for this is what you have chosen over poverty." (Iyov 36:21)
18) [line 30] "CHAMAS MELECH MAL'ACHEI MAVES, V'ISH CHACHAM YECHAPERENAH." - "The wrath of the King is like angels of death, but a wise man will pacify it." (Mishlei 16:14)
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