[74a - 47 lines; 74b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]גנו אפרקידGANU A'PARKID- they were resting upon their backs (O.F. sovins)

2)[line 1]והוה זקיפא ברכיה דחד מינייהוHAVA ZEKIFA BIRKEI D'CHAD MINAIHU- the knee of one of them was [bent] upright

3)[line 2]ועיילAYIL- ascended; i.e., went

4)[line 2]תותיTUSEI- underneath

5)[line 2]כי רכיב גמלא וזקיפא רומחיהKI RACHIV GAMLA U'ZEKIFA ROMCHEI- while riding a camel and holding his spear in an upright position

6)[line 3]פסקי חדא קרנא דתכלתאPASKI CHADA KARNA DI'SECHELTA- I cut off one corner of the Techeles (i.e., the Tzitzis, referred to in this way due to the centrality of Techeles to the Mitzvah; see below, entry #15) (it will soon be made clear why Rabah bar bar Chanah acted in this way)

7)[line 4]ולא הוה מסתגי לןLO HAVAH MISTEGEI LAN- [the animals upon which] we [were riding] were unable to move

8)[line 5]שקלת מידיSHAKLAS MIDI- you took something

9)[line 6]אהדריהAHADREI- return it

10)[line 6]דגמיריGEMIREI- lit. we have learned; i.e., we have a tradition

11)[line 7]והדרHADAR- subsequently

12)[line 8]כל אבא חמראKOL ABA CHAMRA- every Aba is [foolish as] a donkey. This is a reference to Rabah bar bar Chanah, whose name was Aba. "Rabah" is a contraction of "Rav Aba" (see ARUCH Erech Abaye)

13)[line 9]סיכסאSICHSA- a fool

14)[line 9]למאי הלכתא עבדת הכי?L'MAI HILCHESA AVDAS HACHI?- for what Halachic purpose did you do this (namely, cutting off the corner of the Tzitzis)?

15)[line 10]אי כבית שמאי אי כבית הללIY K'VEIS SHAMAI IY K'VEIS HILLEL (The Argument Between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel regarding Tzitzis)

(a)One must affix Tzitzis to each corner of a four-cornered garment (Devarim 22:12). Tzitzis consists of threads, one of which must be wool that is dyed with Techeles (a turquoise-colored dye).

(b)Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree as to the number of strings that one must affix to each corner. Beis Hillel rule that one must thread three strings through each corner, doubling them over for a total of six. Beis Shamai maintain that one must thread four strings through each corner, doubling them over for a total of eight (Menachos 41b).

16a)[line 11]איבעי לך למימני חוטיןIBA'I LACH L'MIMNEI CHUTIN- you ought to have counted the threads

b)[line 11]ולמימני חוליות!UL'MIMNEI CHULYOS!- and to have counted the windings of the threads (three windings of the string is termed a "Chulya"; see Menachos 39a)! It is unclear what the number of Chulyos has to do with any of the disputes between Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai regarding Tzitzis. Indeed, the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM (# 400) quotes the Girsa of the Hamburg manuscript, "Havah Miba'i Lach l'Mimninhu u'Meisi u'Meimar" - "You should have counted [the threads] and come and told us [their number]." This Girsa makes no mention of the Chulyos.

17a)[line 13](דהדרא) [דהדרן] ליה (עקרבא) [עקרבי]D'HADRA[N] LEI (AKRABA) [AKRABEI]- it was surrounded by scorpions

b)[line 13](וקיימא) [וקיימן] כי חמרי חוורתיV'KAIMA[N] KI CHAMREI CHIVARTEI- and they stood like white donkeys

18)[line 14]אוי לי שנשבעתי!OY LI SHE'NISHBATI!- woe unto Me that I have taken an oath [to send the Jewish people into exile]!

19)[line 15]מפרMEFER (HATARAS NEDARIM - The Revoking of Vows)

(a)After one has taken a Neder (vow) or Shevu'ah (oath), pledged to be a Nazir, or designated Chalah (see Background to Beitzah 12:12), Terumah (see Background to Beitzah 12:15), or Hekdesh (that which is sanctified to HaSh-m), he may have his vow revoked. He cannot accomplish this himself; rather, he must appeal to either a Beis Din of three, or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority).

(b)Two possible methods exist to repeal a Neder. One is that the person who took the vow explains that had he been fully aware of the circumstances at the time that he took the Neder, or had he thought through the ramifications of his Neder, the he would not have taken the Neder in the first place. This is called a Pesach.

(c)The other method is that of Charatah - sincere remorse that one had ever taken the Neder. Charatah requires that he who vowed wishes that he had never taken the Neder to begin with, and not merely that the Neder would not now be in effect. Tana'im disagree as to whether or not Charatah alone is sufficient for Beis Din or a Chacham to revoke a Neder (Nedarim 22).

(d)Although our Gemara refers to Hataras Nedarim, HaSh-m uses the word "Mefer". This generally refers to Hafaras Nedarim, a related but different Halachic method through which a father annuls the vows of his daughter or a husband annuls the vows of his wife (see Background to Gitin 83:50). A similar cross-reference can be found in Bechoros 37a (see TOSFOS ibid. DH Meferin; MESORES HA'SHAS).

20)[line 18]שבועתא דמבול הואSHEVU'ASA D'MABUL HU- the Shevu'ah [to which HaSh-m referred] was that in which [He vowed never to bring another] flood [upon the world] (Yeshayah 54:9)

21)[line 20][בי] בלועי דקרח[BEI] BELU'EI D'KORACH- [the place where] those [who participated in the rebellion] of Korach were swallowed [up by the ground] (Bamidbar 16:30-34)

22)[line 20]תרי ביזעיTREI BIZ'EI- two cracks [in the ground]

23)[line 20]והוו קא מפקי קוטראHAVU KA MAFKEI KUTRA- smoke was issuing forth

24)[line 21]שקל גבבא דעמראSHAKAL GAVEVA D'AMRA- he took a clump of wool

25)[line 21]ואמשינה במיאAMSHINAH B'MAYA- soaked it in water

26)[line 22]ודעציתה בראשה דרומחאDA'ATZITAH B'ROSHAH D'DROMCHA- he stuck it onto the tip of a spear

27)[line 23]וכי אפיק, הוה איחרך איחרוכיKI APIK, HAVAH ICHRACH ICHRUCHEI- when [the clump of wool] exited, it was singed

28)[line 24]אצית! מאי שמעת?ATZIS! MAI SHAM'AS?- listen closely! What do you hear?

29)[line 25]והן בדאיןHEN BADA'IN- they (i.e., we, referring to themselves in the third-person) are fraudulent

30)[line 25]כל תלתין יומיKOL TELASIN YOMEI- every thirty days

31)[line 25]מהדר להו גיהנם להכא כבשר בקלחתMEHADER LEHU GEIHINOM L'HACHA K'VASAR B'KALACHAS- Gehinom brings them back to this point similar to the way in which meat [is turned over] in a pot [to insure that it is well-cooked]

32)[line 28]היכא דנשקי ארעא ורקיעא אהדדיHEICHA D'NASHKEI AR'A U'REKI'A A'HADADEI- where earth and heaven kiss

33)[line 29][אזלי וחזאי דעביד כוי כוי][AZLI V'CHAZA'I D'AVID KAVEI KAVEI]- [I went and I saw that (the heavens) were fashioned of windows]

34)[line 29]שקלתא לסילתאיSHAKALTA L'SILTA'I- I took my breadbasket

35)[line 30]אתנחתא בכוותא דרקיעאASNACHTA B'CHAVSA DI'REKI'A- I placed it in [one of] the windows of heaven

36)[line 30]אדמצלינאAD'MATZLINA- by the time that I finished praying

37)[line 30]בעיתיה ולא אשכחיתהBE'ISEI V'LO ASHKACHISAH- I searched for it and I did not find it

38)[line 32]האי גלגלא דרקיעא הוא דהדרHAI GALGELA DI'REKI'A HU D'HADAR- that is [merely] the heavenly sphere turning

39)[line 32]נטרNETAR- wait

40)[line 34]משתעיMISHTA'I- related

41)[line 37]ודמיין עייניה כתרי סיהריDAMYAN EINEI KI'TREI SIHAREI- its eyes appeared as two moons

42a)[line 37]ונפוץ מיא מתרתי זימיהNAFUTZ MAYA MI'TARTEI ZIMEI/USYEI- water streamed from its two nostrils

b)[line 38]כתרי מברי דסוראKI'TREI MAVREI D'SURA- like the two rivers of Sura

43)[line 40]קרניKARNEI- horns

44)[line 40]וחקיקCHAKIK- etched

45)[line 41]אנא בריה קלה שביםANA BERIYAH KALAH SHEB'YAM- I am one of the smaller (lit. lighter) creatures in the sea

46)[line 41]והוינא תלת מאה פרסיHAVINA TELAS ME'AH PARSEI- I am three hundred Parsa'os [long] (approximately 1,094 kilometers/680 miles, 1,152 kilometers/716 miles, or 1,382 kilometers/859 miles, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

47)[line 41]ואזילנא לפומא דלויתןAZILNA L'FUMA D'LIVYASAN- I am going to the mouth of the Leviathan; i.e., it will consume me today

48)[line 42]עיזא דימאIZA D'YAMA- the sea-goat. Every land-dwelling animal has a counterpart in the sea, with the exception of the Chuldah (a weasel-like animal) (Chulin 127a)

49)[line 43]דבחישאVECHISHA- it searches [for its food by digging in the seabed with its horn]

50)[line 45]קרטליתאKARTELISA- a chest

51)[line 45]דהוו קא מקבעי בהHAVU KA MIKBE'EI BAH- into which were set

52)[line 46]ומרגליותMARGALIYOS- pearls

53)[line 46]והדרי להHADREI LAH- surrounding it

54)[last line]דמקרי כרשאD'MIKREI KARSHA- that are called "Karsha"

55)[last line]נחית בר אמוראי לאתויהNACHIS BAR AMORA'EI L'ASUYAH- a diver dove down to bring [the chest]

74b----------------------------------------74b

56)[line 1]ורגשRAGASH- [the fish] sensed [the diver]

57)[line 1]ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיהVA'I L'SHAMTEI L'ATMEI- it attempted to [attack and] cut off his thigh

58)[line 2]ושדא [ליה] (זיקא ד)חלאSHADA [LEI] (ZIKA D')CHALA- he threw (a) (a bottle of) vinegar [at it] (RASHBAM); (b) sand [at it] (RABEINU GERSHOM)

59)[line 2]ונחתNACHAS- and [the fish] went away (lit. down)

60)[line 4]דדביתהוDEBIS'HU- his wife

61a)[line 4]דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בהASIDAH D'SHADYA TECHELTA BAH- in the future she will place Techeles in it

b)[line 5]לצדיקי לעלמא דאתיL'TZADIKEI L'ALMA D'ASI- for the righteous for the World to Come

62)[line 5]רב יהודה הינדואRAV YEHUDAH HINDEVA- Rebbi Yehudah of Hindeva. The Aramaic "Hindeva" (alt. Hindeka) is generally translated as "India" ("Hodu" in modern Hebrew). Such is indeed implied by Midrash Koheles Raba 2:5, which writes that certain exotic spices grow in "Hindiki", and Targum Onkelos to Megilas Esther 1:1, where India is referred to as "Hindiya Raba". RASHI to Avodah Zarah 16a DH b'Farzela identifies Hindeva as India as well. Targum Yonasan, however, identifies Hindeva as "Ethiopia" (see Targum Yonasan to Bereishis 2:11, 10:7, 25:18 and Divrei ha'Yamim I 1:9, where he translates "Chavila" as "Hindeva" according to the Girsa of the Aruch [Erech Hinduy] or "Hindeka" according to our texts, and Targum Yonasan to Yirmeyahu 13:23 where he translates "Kushi" as "Hindeva'ah"). RASHI agrees with this identification of Hindeva on Berachos 36b, Yoma 34b and 81b, and Kidushin 22b. It is possible that both India and a region of Ethiopia were known by the name of Hindeva/Hodu (see also Megilah 11a).

63)[line 7]אבן טבאEVEN TAVA- a precious stone

64)[line 8]דהוה הדיר לה תנינאHAVAH HADIR LAH TANINA- it was surrounded by a great sea serpent

65)[line 9]למבלעL'MIVLA- to swallow

66)[line 10](פישקנצא) [פושקנצא]PUSHKANTZA- a female raven

67)[line 10]פסקיה לרישיהPASKEI L'REISHEI- [the raven] cut off its head

68)[line 11]אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמאISHAPICHU MAYA V'HAVU DAMA- the water turned to blood [due to the quantity of blood that flowed from the severed neck of the serpent]

69)[line 12]שקליה ותליה ליהSHAKLEI V'TALYAH LEI- it took [the stone] and hung it upon [the beheaded serpent]

70)[line 12]הדר אתאHADAR ASA- [the now resurrected serpent] again came

71)[line 13](ציפרא) [ההוא פשקנצא](TZIPERA) [HA'HU PISHKANTZA]- (a bird) [that female raven]

72)[line 13](שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא, שדיוה לספינתא) [שקלת לההיא אבן טבא ופרח בהדה; נפלה ההיא אבן טבא בספינתא](SHAKLUHA LEHA'HI EVEN TAVA, SHADYUHA L'EFINASA) [SHAKLAS LEHA'HI EVEN TAVA U'PARACH B'HADAH; NAFLAH HA'HI EVEN TAVA B'SEFINASA]- ([the bird] took that precious stone and threw it into the ship) [[the female raven] took the precious stone and flew with it; [as it flew over the ship] the precious stone fell into the ship]. The Girsa change is found in the Bach #2.

73)[line 14]מליחיMELICHEI- salt-cured

74)[line 14]אותבינהו עלייהוOSVINHU ALAIHU- we placed [the stone] upon them [to check if it would resurrect them, and indeed it did]

75)[line 15]ופרחו להו בהדהFARCHU LEHU BA'HADAH- they flew away with it

76)[line 16]נעורNE'OR- awake

77)[line 16]נזדעזעNIZDA'AZE'A- he shook in fright

78)[line 17]מאור גדולMA'OR GADOL- a great light

79)[line 18]"... [וְ]עֵינָיו, כְּעַפְעַפֵּי שָׁחַר""... [V']EINAV K'AF'APEI SHACHAR"- "... [and] its eyes are like the brightness of daybreak" (Iyov 41:10). This verse is part of a description of the Leviathan.

80)[line 19](אטמא) [ירך] דבשרא(ATMA) [YARECH] D'VISRA- a thigh of meat

81)[line 19]פתחנא (ונקרינא) [ונקירנא מינה]PESACHNA (V'NAKRINA) [V'NAKIRNA MINAH]- we cut it open and removed [from it] the forbidden fats (see Background to Bava Metzia 3:39) and the Gid ha'Nasheh (see Background to Beitzah 12:7)

82)[line 20](אנחנא) [אנחינא] אעשבי(ANACHNA) [ANCHINA] A'ISBEI- we laid it on a bed of grass

83a)[line 20]אדמייתינן ציביAD'MAISINAN TZIVEI- by the time that we brought kindling

b)[line 20](חלם) [איאלם] אטמא(CHALAM) [I'ALAM] ATMA- the thigh had healed [due to the healing properties of the grass]

84)[line 20]וטוינןTAVINAN- we roasted [the thigh]

85)[line 21]גומריGUMREI- coals

86)[line 21]מלחשיMELACHASHEI- smoldering

87)[line 22]סמתריSAMTAREI- the name of an herb with healing properties

88)[line 22]דריתמא הווD'RISMA HAVU- were [coals] of Rosem wood [which are not easily extinguished]

89)[line 23]הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימאHACHA TARGIMU ARZILEI D'YAMA- here [in Bavel] we explained [this verse to be referring to] the sea Re'em (see Background to 73:52 and 74:37)

90a)[line 23]לויתן נחש בריחLIVYASAN NACHASH BARI'ACH- the [male] Leviathan [that is in the shape of] a snake [that is straight as] a rod

b)[line 26]ולויתן נחש עקלתוןLIVYASAN NACHASH AKALASON- the [female] Leviathan [that is in the shape of] a snake that curves around [and encircles the entire world]

91)[line 24]"בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקוֹד ה' בְּחַרְבּוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן; וְהָרַג אֶת הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם""BA'YOM HA'HU YIFKOD HASH-M B'CHARBO HA'KASHAH VEHA'GEDOLAH VEHA'CHAZAKAH AL LIVYASAN NACHASH BARI'ACH V'AL LIVYASAN NACHASH AKALASON; V'HARAG ES HA'TANIN ASHER BA'YAM" - "On that day, HaSh-m will bring [punishment] with His harsh, great, and powerful sword upon the Leviathan the rod-like snake and the Leviathan the curved snake; and He will kill the great serpent in the sea" (Yeshayah 27:1).

The simple meaning of this verse refers to the judgment that HaSh-m will pass in the future upon various evil regimes, here represented by animals, which had subjugated Klal Yisrael.

92)[line 25](סימן כל שעה ירדן)(SIMAN KOL SHA'AH YARDEN) - This is a mnemonic device for remembering the three teachings that follow, all of which are cited in the name of Rav Yehudah in the name of Rav. The Siman refers to the following:

1."KOL" - "Kol Mah she'Bara ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu b'Olamo" (line 25)

2."SHA'AH" - "b'Sha'ah she'Bikesh ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu li'Vros Es ha'Olam" (line 36)

3."YARDEN" - "Yarden Yotzei mi'Ma'aras Pamyas" (line 42)

93a)[line 27]ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזהILMALEI NIZKAKIN ZEH LA'ZEH- if they were to mate with each other

b)[line 27]מחריבין כל העולם כולוMACHARIVIN KOL HA'OLAM KULO- they would destroy the entire world [through their abundance of enormous offspring]

94)[line 28]סירסSIRES- He castrated

95)[line 29]"... וְהָרַג אֶת-הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם""... V'HARAG ES HA'TANIN ASHER BA'YAM"- "... and He will kill the great serpent in the sea" (Yeshayah 27:1). Although the simple reading of this verse implies that it refers to an event that will happen in the future (see above, entry #91), the word "v'Harag" can also refer to an event that happened in the past. Our Gemara teaches that it refers to the killing of the female Leviathan, which occurred immediately after its creation. The event in which HaSh-m will kill the male Leviathan by the sword (see 75a) will occur in the future.

96)[line 29]"בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי אָלֶף""BEHEMOS B'HAREREI ALEF"- the animals that are [so large that they must graze] upon one thousand mountains [daily]. This is a quote from Tehilim 50:10, and according to the understanding of our Gemara it refers to the Shor ha'Bor - the wild ox.

97)[line 31]וצינןTZINEN- He cooled [her ardor]

98)[line 31]"הִנֵּה נָא כֹחוֹ בְמָתְנָיו, וְאוֹנוֹ בִּשְׁרִירֵי בִטְנוֹ""HINEH NA CHOCHO V'MASNAV, V'ONO BI'SHRIREI VITNO"- "Behold, its might is in its loins, and its strength in the navel of its belly" (Iyov 40:16). This verse is found in a discussion of the Shor ha'Bor (see above, entry #96). Our Gemara explains that the first half of the verse refers to the male, whose might remains in his loins due to its castration, and the second half refers to the female, whose strength remains in her belly due to that which she never conceived.

99)[line 32]התם נמיHASAM NAMI- there, too [with regard to the Leviathan]

100)[line 33]דגים פריציDAGIM PERITZEI- fish are prolific [and it would not have been sufficient to cool down the ardor of the female Leviathan]

101)[line 1]וליעביד איפכא?V'LEI'AVID IPCHA?- and why not do the opposite [and spay the female while killing and preserving the male for Tzadikim in the future]?

102)[line 33]נקבה מליחא מעליNEKEVAH MELICHA MA'ALI- the salt-cured female [Leviathan] is superior [in taste to the male]

103)[line 34]"לִוְיָתָן זֶה יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק בּוֹ""... LIVYASAN ZEH YATZARTA L'SACHEK BO"- "... this Leviathan You created to frolic with" (Tehilim 104:26).

104)[line 34]לאו אורח ארעאLAV ORACH AR'A- it is not proper conduct (Orach Ar'a is the Aramaic translation of Derech Eretz)

105)[line 37]לשר של יםSAR SHEL YAM- the spiritual being appointed over the sea

106)[line 37]ובלע כל מימות שבעולםBELA KOL MAIMOS SHEB'OLAM- swallow all of the water in the world [into your seas and oceans in order that dry land be revealed (see Bereishis 1:9)]

107)[line 37]די שאעמוד בשליDAI SHA'AMOD B'SHELI- (a) it is enough that I stand in my own; i.e., I cannot limit my waters such that land is uncovered; (b) according to the Girsa DAI SHE'EVLA MAYIM SHE'LI - it is enough that I swallow those waters that are mine [to swallow (i.e., the rivers that flow into the seas) (RASHBAM)

108)[line 38]בעט בוBA'AT BO- [HaSh-m] kicked [the Sar Shel Yam]

109)[line 38]"בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם, ובתובנתו (וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ) מָחַץ רָהַב""B'CHOCHO RAGA HA'YAM, UVI'SVUNASO MACHATZ RAHAV"- "With His strength He split the sea, and with His understanding He smote Egypt" (Iyov 26:12). According to the simple understanding of this verse, it refers to when HaSh-m took Klal Yisrael out of Mitzrayim. Our Gemara interprets it to mean that HaSh-m attacked the Sar of the sea.

110a)[line 39]ואלמלא מים מכסין אותוILMALEI MAYIM MECHASIN OSO- if not for that which water covers his [corpse]

b)[line 39]אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחוEIN KOL BERIYAH YACHOL LA'AMOD B'REICHO- no creature would be able to stand before the stench of his [rotting corpse]

111)[line 40]"לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל הַר קָדְשִׁי, כִּי מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת ה' כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים""LO YARE'U V'LO YASHCHISU B'CHOL HAR KODSHI, KI MAL'AH HA'ARETZ DE'AH ES HASH-M KA'MAYIM LA'YAM MECHASIM"- "They will neither harm nor destroy in all of My holy mountain, for the land will be as full of [desire to] know HaSh-m as water covering the sea." (Yeshayah 11:9)

112)[line 42]ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייסYARDEN YOTZEI MI'ME'ARAS PAMYAS (alt. PANYAS)- the Jordan River emanates from the Pamyas cave. Pamyas was an ancient city in the northeast of Eretz Yisrael. It is currently known as Banyas, and the springs there are one of the main sources of the Jordan.

113a)[line 43]בְּיַמָּהּ של סיבכיYAMA SHEL SIVCHAI- the Lake of Sivchai. This most probably refers to the Chula Lake, which, until recent times, was a small lake located to the north of the Kineret. The lake was recently dried since the area around it had turned into swampland which bred malaria-infested mosquitoes. The area is now known as the Chula Valley.

b)[line 43]ובימה של טבריאYAMA SHEL TEVERYAH- the Sea of Tiberias; Lake Kineret

c)[line 43]לים הגדולYAM HA'GADOL- the Mediterranean Sea; it is called the "Great Sea" due to its proximity to Eretz Yisrael (MISHNAH BERURAH 228:2). (It is interesting to note that the Gemara does not mention Yam ha'Melach (the Dead Sea) among those in the path of the Jordan River, and yet does include the Mediterranean Yam, which is not in the path of the Jordan. See ANAF YOSEF.)

114)[line 44]"... יִבְטַח כִּי יָגִיחַ יַרְדֵּן אֶל-פִּיהוּ""... YIVTACH KI YAGI'ACH YARDEN EL PIHU"- "... it is certain to draw the Jordan River to its mouth" (Iyov 40:23). The simple interpretation of this verse refers to the Euphrates River, into which the Jordan empties. Our Gemara seems at this point to interpret it to be referring to the Leviathan.

115)[line 45]האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב!HAI B'VEHEMOS B'HARAREI ELEF KSIV!- this [verse] is written regarding the Behemos b'Harerei Elef [and not the Leviathan, since the other verses in this chapter clearly refer to the Behemos b'Harerei Elef]!

116)[line 46]בטוחותBETUCHOS- certain [that they will not die]

117)[line 46]בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתןBI'ZMAN SHE'MAGI'ACH YARDEN B'FIV SHEL LIVYASAN- when the Jordan River flows into the mouth of the Leviathan

118)[line 47](סימן ימים גבריאל רעב)(SIMAN YAMIM GAVRIEL RA'EV) - This is a mnemonic device for remembering the three teachings that follow. In our Gemara the first and third are cited by Rav Dimi in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, while the middle one is cited by Rav Dimi in the name of Rebbi Yonasan. However, in the Munich manuscript Rav Dimi cites Rebbi Yonasan in all three teachings, and in the Hamburg and Rome manuscripts Rav Dimi cites Rebbi Yochanan in all three teachings (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #400 and to Daf 75a #2 and 3). The Siman refers to the following:

1."YAMIM" - "Mai di'Chsiv, 'Ki Hu Al Yamim Yesadah ...'?" (line 47)

2."GAVRIEL" - "Asid Gavriel La'asos Kanigya Im Livyasan" (last line)

3."RA'EV" - "b'Sha'ah she'Livyasan Ra'ev Motzi Hevel mi'Piv" (Daf 75a, line 5)

119)[line 47]"כִּי הוּא עַל יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ, וְעַל נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ""KI HU AL YAMIM YESADAH, V'AL NEHAROS YECHONENEHA"- "For He founded it upon seas, and upon rivers He established it" (Tehilim 24:2). This verse refers to Eretz Yisrael.

120a)[line 49]וימה של סדוםYAMAH SHEL SEDOM- the Sea of Sedom; i.e., the Dead Sea

b)[line 49]וימה של חילתYAMAH SHEL CHEILAS- the Sea of Cheilas. This may perhaps refer to the Chula Lake (see above 113a). According to the Girsa YAMAH SHEL SHACHAL - the sea of Shachal (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #1). The body of water currently referred to as "Shachal" is a spring in the lower Galilee that flows into the Jordan River.

c)[line 50]וימה של חילתאYAMAH SHEL CHILTA- the Sea of Chulta. This probably refers to the navigable portion of the Orontes River as it flows to Antiochia.

d)[line 50]וים אספמיאYAM ASPAMYA- the spring of Pamyas/Banyas (see above, entry #112) (There is indeed an alternate Girsa that reads YAM PAMYAS; DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #1)

121a)[last line]וירמוךYARMUCH- a river that forms the boundary between Syria and Jordan; it empties into the Jordan River below the Kineret

b)[last line]וקירומיוןKIRUMYON- (a) the Amanah River, near Damascus (ARUCH); (b) perhaps the Na'aman River near Ako, a tributary of the Mediterranean Sea (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Yerushalayim 5739, p. 172)

c)[last line]ופיגהPIGAH- (a) the Parpar River, near Damascus (ARUCH); (b) perhaps a tributary of the Yarkon River near Rosh ha'Ayin (not far from Petach Tikvah), where a small village by the name of Fija existed (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Yerushalayim 5739, p.153)

122)[last line]גבריאלGAVRIEL- a ministering angel whose role is to mitigate Divine punishment

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