[21a - 44 lines; 21b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]סיפא אתאן לתינוקות של בית רבןSEIFA ASA'AN L'TINOKOS SHEL BEIS RABAN- the end of the Mishnah [which teaches that one may not protest the sound of youngsters] brings us to [a case in which] one is teaching young children who are learning Torah

2)[line 2]יהושע בן גמלאYEHOSHUA BEN GAMLA- a Kohen who lived at the end of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. He married the wealthy widow, Marta bas Baisus, who purchased the office of Kohen Gadol for him (Yevamos 61a).

3)[line 2]ואילךVA'EILACH- and afterward

4)[line 3]ברםBERAM- however

5)[line 4]שאלמלא הואILMALEI HU- if not for him

6)[line 6]מאי דרוש?MAI DARUSH?- how did they derive from the verse [that one ought to teach his own son Torah]?

7)[line 7]"וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אוֹתָם [אֶת-בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם...]"; "ולמדתם אַתֶּם""V'LIMADTEM OSAM [ES BENEICHEM L'DABER BAM...]"; "V'LIMADTEM ATEM"- "And you shall teach them [to your children so that they speak in them ...]"; [this can be read as,] "And you yourselves should teach...." This verse, which refers to the words of the Torah, is written without a "Vav." According to the Girsa that does not include the words "V'LIMADTEM ATEM," the derivation is from the word "v'Limadtem," which can be read as a contraction of the words "v'Limed Atem" (TOSFOS DH v'Limadtem).

8)[line 10]מעלוֹMA'ALO- bring him up [to Yerushalayim]

9)[line 12]פלךPELACH- a large territory, incorporating many Medinos (see below, entry #12a)

10)[line 12]כבן שש עשרה כבן שבע עשרהK'VEN SHESH ESREI K'VEN SHEVA ESREI- at the age of sixteen or seventeen [when he was old enough to travel safely on his own]

11)[line 13](מבעיט) [מבעט] בו ויצא(MAV'IT) [MEVA'ET] BO V'YATZA- would rebel against him (lit. kick him) and leave

12a)[line 15]מדינהMEDINAH- a state

b)[line 16]עירIR- a city

13)[line 16]כבן שש כבן שבעK'VEN SHESH K'VEN SHEVA- at the age of six or seven (depending on his health)

14)[line 17]לרב שמואל בר שילתRAV SHMUEL BAR SHILAS- a dedicated teacher of Torah to young children (see 8b)

15)[line 18]שיתSHIS- [the age of] six

16)[line 19]ואספי ליה כתוראASFI LEI K'SORA- stuff him [full of Torah] like [one force-feeds] an ox

17)[line 20]כי מחית לינוקאKI MACHIS L'YANUKA- when you strike a child [who misbehaves]

18)[line 20]בערקתא דמסנאARKESA D'MESANA- a shoe strap [that does not cause great pain]

19a)[line 21]דקארי, קאריD'KARI, KARI- (a) those who learn (lit. recite [verses]), will learn (RASHI); (b) those who [begin to] learn [as a result of the aforementioned light punishment] will learn (BEN YEHOYADA)

b)[line 21]דלא קארי, ליהוי צוותא לחבריהD'LO KARI, LEIHAVEI TZAVSA L'CHAVREI- (a) and [do not overly punish] those who do not learn, [for] they will keep the company of their friends [who pay attention, and will therefore eventually develop good habits] (RASHI); (b) and if they do not begin to learn [as a result of the aforementioned light punishment], they will serve as an example to their friends (BEN YEHOYADA)

20a)[line 23]רופאROFEI- one who performs circumcisions (a Mohel)

b)[line 23]אומןUMAN- a blood letter

c)[line 23]וגרדיGARDI- a weaver

21)[line 25]בתינוקות דעכו"םTINOKOS D'AKU"M- Nochri children (or, for that matter, Jewish children) [who are learning subjects other than Torah] (see RITVA)

22)[line 29]לא ישכירנוLO YASKIRENU- he may not rent it out

23a)[line 30]לסופר יהודיSOFER YEHUDI- a Jewish schoolteacher

b)[line 31]לסופר ארמאיSOFER ARAMA'I- a Nochri schoolteacher

24)[line 32]בסופר מתאSOFER MASA- (a) the headmaster of the town school [whose institution produces a greater decibel level than a single class] (RASHI); (b) the town scribe [who transcribes legal documents and attracts many clients] (RABEINU CHANANEL cited by TOSFOS DH b'Sofer, first explanation of RABEINU GERSHOM); (c) the town barber [who attracts many clients] (RABEINU GERSHOM, 2nd explanation)

25)[line 33]לא ממטינן ינוקא ממתא למתאLO MAMTINAN YENUKA MI'MASA L'MASA- [the townspeople] cannot transport children from one town to another [to learn Torah; rather, their parents may insist that a Rebbi be hired to teach them locally]

26)[line 34]מבי כנישתא לבי כנישתאMI'BEI KENISHTA L'BEI KENISHTA- from one synagogue (lit. place of gathering; Bei Kenishta is the Aramaic translation of Beis Keneses) to another [within the same city]

27)[line 34]מפסק נהראMIFSAK NAHARA- a river divides [one synagogue from the other]

28a)[line 35]תיתוראTITURA- a bridge

b)[line 36]גמלאGAMLA- (a) a bridge consisting of a single plank (RASHI); (b) a bridge consisting of a narrow plank with a rope strung above it to hold on to for balance (RABEINU GERSHOM)

29a)[line 36]סך מקרי דרדקי עשרין וחמשה ינוקיSACH MAKRI DARDEKEI ESRIN V'CHAMISHAH YENUKEI- (a) the [smallest] number of children for [which the town must hire] a Rebbi (lit. one who teaches children to read verses) is twenty-five (TOSFOS DH Sach, ROSH); (b) the [maximum] number of children a Rebbi [may be given to teach] is twenty-five (RABEINU GERSHOM, RAMBAM, and other Rishonim); (c) the number of children that [each] Rebbi [should be given to teach when there is a large number of students] is twenty-five (he may, however, teach any number between one and forty) (RAMBAN, possibly RASHI)

b)[line 37]ואי איכא חמשין, מותבינן תריV'IY IKA CHAMSHIN, MOSVINAN TREI- (a) and if there are fifty, then [the town] must hire two Rebbeim (TOSFOS DH Sach, ROSH, RAMBAN); (b) and [from forty until] there are fifty, [the town] must hire two Rebbeim (for a class of more than fifty, the town must hire an assistant) (RAMBAM)

c)[line 38]ואי איכא ארבעין, מוקמינן ריש דוכנאV'IY IKA ARBA'IN, MOKMINAN REISH DUCHNA- (a) and if there are forty, then we appoint an assistant who learns with the students and then helps them to understand the material (lit. one who sits at the head of the platform) (TOSFOS DH Sach, ROSH, RAMBAN); (b) and [from twenty-five until] there are forty, [the town] must hire an assistant who learns with the students and then helps them to understand the material (RAMBAM)

30)[line 38]ומסייעין ליה ממתאMESAI'IN LEI MI'MASA- the town must help [the Rebbi with the wages of the assistant]; i.e., the Rebbi need not pay his salary

31)[line 39]דגריסD'GARIS- who is well-learned

32)[line 39]מסלקינןMESALKINAN- we remove

33)[line 39]אתי לאיתרשוליASI L'ISRASHULEI- [the newly appointed teacher] will be lazy [in his preparation, since he knows that he is the most qualified candidate for the job]

34)[line 40]כ"ש דגריס טפי!KOL SHE'CHEN D'GARIS TEFEI!- [not only that, but] he will certainly become more learned!

35)[line 40]קנאת סופרים תרבה חכמהKIN'AS SOFRIM TARBEH CHOCHMAH- jealousy among scholars [of the spiritual heights attained by others] increases wisdom

36)[line 41]דייקDAYIK- careful [to teach in a manner that does not result in a mistaken understanding on the part of his students]

37a)[line 42]שבשתא ממילא נפקאSHABESHTA MEMEILA NAFKA- a [learned] error will disappear on its own [over the course of time]

b)[line 43]שבשתא, כיון דעל, עלSHABESHTA, KEIVAN D'AL, AL- an error, once learned, remains

38)[line 43]"כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת חֳדָשִׁים יָשַׁב שָׁם יוֹאָב וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד הִכְרִית כָּל זָכָר בֶּאֱדוֹם""KI SHESHES CHODASHIM YASHAV SHAM YOAV VCHOL YISRA'EL, AD HICHRIS KOL ZACHAR BE'EDOM"- "For over the course of six months Yoav and all of [the army of] Yisrael remained there, until they killed all the males of Edom" (Melachim I 11:16). Yoav, general of David ha'Melech's army, led the war to annex the land of Edom.

21b----------------------------------------21b

39)[line 1]"תִּמְחֶה אֶת זָכָר עֲמָלֵק...""... TIMCHEH ES ZACHAR AMALEK ..."- "... you shall wipe out the males of Amalek..." (Yoav's mistaken reading of Devarim 25:19). Yoav reasoned that if HaSh-m commanded us to kill only the males of Amalek in a Milchemes Mitzvah (a required war), certainly no more is required for a Milchemes Reshus (an optional war) such as that with Edom (MAHARSHA).

40)[line 2]והא אנן "זֵכֶר" קרינןV'HA ANAN "ZECHER" KARINAN- but we read [the verse with vowelization that causes it to read, "... you shall wipe out] any trace [of Amalek...]"

41)[line 3]אקריוןAKARYUN- I was taught to read

42)[line 4]אמר ליה, "זֵכֶר"AMAR LEI, "ZECHER"- he told him, "Zecher." Yoav's teacher was aware of the correct pronunciation, but he had not been careful to correct his student when he erred (TOSFOS to 21a DH פר"ח PR"CH).

43)[line 5]שקל ספסירא למיקטליהSHAKAL SAFSIRA L'MIKTELEI- he took a sword with which to kill him (see CHIDA in DEVARIM ACHADIM Derush 21)

44)[line 5]אמאי?AMAI?- why [are you about to kill me]?

45)[line 6]"אָרוּר עֹשֶׂה מְלֶאכֶת ה' רְמִיָּה; וְאָרוּר מֹנֵעַ חַרְבּוֹ מִדָּם""ARUR OSEH MELECHES HASH-M REMIYAH; V'ARUR MONE'A CHARBO MI'DAM"- "Cursed be he who performs the work of HaSh-m with deceit; and cursed be he who withholds his sword from spilling blood." (Yirmeyahu 48:10) - This verse refers to Moav, who were able to act destructively only because it was the will (the "work") of HaSh-m. Yoav interpreted it to refer to his Rebbi, who had performed the work of HaSh-m - i.e., teaching Torah - deceitfully, since he did not ensure that his students learned properly.

46)[line 7]שבקיה לההוא גברא דליקום בארורSHAVKEI L'HAHU GAVRA D'LEIKOM B'ARUR- leave that man (referring to himself in the third person) [alive] to remain cursed

47)[line 8]"... וארור מונע חרבו מדם""... V'ARUR MONE'A CHARBO MI'DAM"- see above, entry #45

48a)[line 10]שתלאSHATALA- (a) a sharecropper who has a lifetime contract (see Bava Metzia 109a) (RASHI); (b) a [government] worker hired to plant for the residents of his district (RAMBAM Hilchos She'eilah u'Fikadon 2:3)

b)[line 10]טבחאTABACHA- a butcher who slaughters animals

c)[line 10](וסופר) [וספר] מתא(SOFER) [SEFAR] MASA- (a) the town scribe [who writes Sifrei Torah, Tefilin and Mezuzos] (RASHI); (b) the town scribe [who transcribes legal documents (TOSFOS DH Sofer) (Girsa changed by the YA'AVETZ)

49)[line 11]כמותרין ועומדין נינהוK'MUSARIN V'OMDIN NINHU- are considered to have been warned [that they will be fired if they do not perform as expected, and therefore may be fired at their first transgression]

50)[line 12]כל פסידא דלא הדרKOL PESEIDA D'LO HADAR- any [professional whose lack of performance will result in a] loss that is irretrievable. A teacher causes irretrievable loss since (a) it is difficult to unlearn a mistake (see above, entry #37b) (RASHI); (b) the time wasted while the mistake was taught cannot be recovered (TOSFOS DH u'Makri); a sharecropper causes irretrievable loss when he does not put in the effort that will result in the best crop possible (TOSFOS DH Shasla); a butcher can cause an animal to be not kosher if he does not slaughter it properly; a blood letter who removes too much blood can cause a person's death; and a scribe can (a) cause a Sefer Torah to be invalid (RASHI); (b) record incorrect details in a legal document (TOSFOS DH Sofer).

51)[line 13]האי בר מבואה דאוקי ריחיאHAI BAR MAVO'AH D'UKI REICHAYA- if a resident of a Mavoy (alleyway enclosed on three sides, from which many courtyards are accessible) sets up millstones [with which to grind the grain of others at a profit]

52)[line 14]וקמוקי גביהKA'MOKI GABEI- he sets up [millstones for the same purpose] next to him

53)[line 15]קא פסקת ליה לחיותי!KA PASKAS LEI L'CHIYUSI!- you have taken away my livelihood!

54)[line 16]מרחיקים מצודת הדג מן הדג כמלא ריצת הדגMARCHIKIM METZUDAS HA'DAG MIN HA'DAG KI'MELO RITZAS HA'DAG- one must distance his fishnet from a fish [that another fisherman has tracked to its hole] for as far as the fish is expected to swim

55)[line 18]פרסהPARSAH- approximately 3648, 3840, or 4608 meters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

56)[line 19]דיהבי סייאראYAHAVEI SIYARA- they notice [food and are all but guaranteed to be trapped by the first fisherman]

57)[line 21]חנוניCHENVANI- a shopkeeper

58a)[line 21]קליותKELAYOS- [sweet] roasted kernels of grain

b)[line 21]ואגוזיןEGOZIN- nuts

59)[line 22]שמרגילן [לבא] אצלוMARGILAN [LA'VO] ETZLO- he accustoms them to come to his [store when they are sent on errands by their parents, and this is unfair to other shopkeepers]

60)[line 25]שיוסקיSHIYUSKEI- (a) almonds (RASHI); (b) plums (O.F. prunes) (RASHI to Bava Metzia 60a)

61)[line 28]ומרחץMERCHATZ- a bathhouse

62)[line 29]למחותLI'MCHOS- to protest

63)[line 31]כופיןKOFIN- they may force

64a)[line 32]חייטCHAYAT- a [non-local] tailor [who wishes to compete with the local tailor]

b)[line 33]בורסקיBURSEKI- a [non-local] tanner [who wishes to compete with the local tanner]

c)[line 33]מלמד תינוקותMELAMED TINOKOS- (a) a children's teacher [of non-Torah subjects] (RI cited by TOSFOS DH Kofin); (b) a [non-local] Rebbi [who wishes to compete with the local Rebbi] (RASHBA cited by TOSFOS DH Kofin)

d)[line 33]מבני בעלי אומניותBNEI BA'ALEI UMNIYOS- other [non-local] professionals [who wish to compete with the local professionals]

65)[line 34]ולשכנוSHECHEINO- his neighbor (in the Gemara below, Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua deliberates as to the meaning of this term)

66)[line 36]בר מתא אבר מתא אחריתי, מצי מעכבBAR MASA A'BAR MASA ACHRITI MATZI ME'AKEV- a resident of one city may prevent the resident of another city [from setting up a competing business anywhere in the city, even according to the opinion of the Rabanan]

67)[line 37]בכרגאKERAGA- the imperial head tax paid to the local ruler

68)[line 40]בר מבואה אבר מבואה אחרינא, מאי?BAR MAVO'AH A'VAR MAVO'AH ACHRINA, MAI?- what is the Halachah regarding the resident of one Mavoy who wishes to prevent the resident of a different Mavoy [from setting up a competing business in his Mavoy according to the opinion of the Rabanan - is he considered a neighbor since he is a resident of the city, or not since he is a resident of a different Mavoy]?

69)[line 41]תיקוTEIKU - An Unanswered Question

The Gemara often leaves a question unanswered with the word "Teiku". The PRI MEGADIM (Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) cites three explanations for this term:

1.[this question shall remain] sealed in its container (ARUCH, Erech Tik)

2.let [the question] stand ("Tehei Ka'I"; MUSAF HA'ARUCH)

3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos)

70)[line 42]עזרא(EZRA)- (Ezra ha'Sofer, leader of those who returned from the Babylonian exile to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash)

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