[22a - 57 lines; 22b - 37 lines]

1)[line 3]ברוכלין המחזירין בעיירותROCHLIN H'AMACHAZIRIN B'AYAROS- peddlers [of jewelry and perfume] who circulate among the towns

2)[line 5]תכשיטיןTACHSHITIN- ornaments

3a)[line 6]לאהדוריL'AHADUREI- to circulate throughout the town, offer his wares to the residents therein, and then leave]

b)[line 7]לאקבועיL'AKVU'EI- to establish [his business there]

4)[line 7]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a sharp young Torah scholar (RASHI to Ta'anis 4a)

5)[line 8]שראSHARA- permitted

6)[line 9]דלא כהלכתאD'LO K'HILCHESA- not according to [the demands of] Halachah [but rather beyond the letter of the law (li'Fnim mi'Shuras ha'Din)]

7)[line 10]אתו לטרדו מגירסייהוASU LITARDU MI'GIRSAIHU- they may come to be distracted from their Torah learning

8)[line 11]דיקולאיDIKULA'EI- peddlers of (a) baskets; (b) pots

9)[line 14]מעלמא אתו, ולעלמא ליזבנוME'ALMA ASU UL'ALMA LIZVENU- they came from elsewhere (lit. the world), and they will sell to others [who come to the local market]

10)[line 15]ביומא דשוקאYOMA D'SHUKA- market day

11)[line 17]לאהדורי [במתא]L'AHADUREI [B'MASA]- to circulate [throughout town]

12)[line 17]עמוראיAMORA'EI- peddlers of wool

13)[line 18]לפום נהראPUM NAHARA- a Jewish Babylonian city located at the mouth (Pum) of a river (Nahara)

14)[line 21]אית לן אשראי [במתא]IS LAN ASHRAI [B'MASA]- we have credit (owed us from the wool that we have already sold) due to us from residents of the city

15a)[line 22]זילו זבנו שיעור חיותייכוZILU ZAVNU SHI'UR CHIYUSAICHU- go sell the amount [of wool] that you require to keep yourselves alive

b)[line 22]עד דעקריתו אשראי דידכוAD D'AKRISU ASHRAI DIDCHU- until your credit has been repaid (lit. uprooted)

c)[line 23]ואזליתוV'AZLISU- and then go

16)[line 23]אייתי גרוגרות בספינהAISI GEROGEROS B'SEFINAH- he brought dried figs on a boat [to sell]

17)[line 23]ריש גלותאREISH GALUSA- the Exilarch, who held the hereditary position of religious leader of Babylonian Jewry. The position of Reish Galusa was the Babylonian equivalent of the position of Nasi in Eretz Yisrael.

18)[line 24]פוק חזיPOK CHAZI- go out and see

19)[line 25]נקיט ליה שוקאNAKIT LEI SHUKA- hold the market for him [by announcing that no one should buy figs from another merchant until his are sold out]

20)[line 26]פוק תהי ליה בקנקניהTAHI LEI B'KANKANEI- lit. sniff his wine barrel [to see if it contains wine or vinegar]; i.e., test him to see if he is a Talmid Chacham

21)[line 27]נפקNAFAK- he went

22)[line 27]פיל שבלע כפיפה מצרית, והקיאה דרך בית הרעיPIL SHE'BALA KEFIFAH MITZRIS V'HEKI'AH DERECH BEIS HA'RE'I- if an elephant swallowed willow branches, and after they were subsequently excreted through its rectum they were woven into a basket (see Menachos 69a, cited by TOSFOS DH Pil)

23)[line 28]מהו?MAHU? (KLEI GELALIM / ADAMAH / AVANIM - Dung, Earth, and Stone Vessels)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah" due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When something or someone comes into contact with an object that is Tamei, it/he attains a status of Tum'ah one degree weaker than that object. Thus, a persom or object that comes into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah (or Vlad ha'Tum'ah). That which receives its Tum'ah from a Rishon becomes a Sheni l'Tum'ah, that which receives its Tum'ah from a Sheni becomes a Shelishi l'Tum'ah (in certain cases), etc.

(a)Vessels fashioned from animal manure (Klei Gelalim), unbaked mud (Klei Adamah) and stone (Klei Avanim) cannot become Tamei. This is derived from that which the Torah mentions only vessels made of cloth, leather, goat hair, wood, various metals, and pottery when listing those items that require purification (see Bamidbar 31:19-22 and SIFRI to Chukas 126, and RASHBAM to Vayikra 11:32).

24)[line 29]לא הוה בידיהLO HAVAH B'YADEI- lit. it was not in his hands; i.e., he did not know the answer to the question

25)[line 29]אמר ליה, "מר ניהו רבא?"AMAR LEI, "MAR NIHU RAVA?"- [Rav Dimi mi'Neharde'a] said to [Rav Ada bar Aba], "Is Mar (a third-party term of respect) Rava?"

26)[line 29]טפח ליה בסנדליהTAFACH LEI B'SANDALEI- (a) [Rav Ada bar Aba] tapped [Rav Dimi mi'Neharde'a] on his sandal [with his stick in a dismissive manner] (RASHI); (b) [Rav Ada bar Aba] kicked [Rav Dimi mi'Neharde'a] with his sandal [in a dismissive manner] (RABEINU GERSHOM)

27)[line 30]טובאTUVA- much; i.e., a great gap in Torah knowledge

28)[line 32]פסידPASID- they were lost; i.e., they spoiled

29)[line 33]חזי, מר, מאי עבדו לי!CHAZI, MAR, MAI AVDU LI!- see, Mar (a third-party term of respect), what they did to me! This was a complaint regarding that which (a) Rav Ada decided that he was not a Talmid Chacham due to his inability to answer a question in the area of Taharos, which was not commonly learned at the time (RITVA); (b) Rav Ada tapped or kicked him dismissively (MAHARSHA).

30)[line 34]מאן דלא שהייה לאוניתא דמלכא דאדום לא נשהייה לאוניתיךMAN D'LO SHAHAYEI L'ONISA D'MALKA D'EDOM LO NISH'HAYEI L'ONISICH- the One who did not wait [to avenge] the shame of the king of Edom [visited upon him by the king of Moav (see next entry)] should not wait [to avenge] your shame

31)[line 36]"כֹּה אָמַר ה', 'עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי מוֹאָב, וְעַל אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ; עַל שָׂרְפוֹ עַצְמוֹת מֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם לַשִּׂיד'""KO AMAR HASH-M, 'AL SHELOSHAH PISH'EI MOAV… AL SARFO ATZMOS MELECH EDOM LA'SID"- "Thus says HaSh-m, 'For three sins of Moav [I have forgiven them], but on the fourth I shall not respond [without punishment]; [this fourth is] that which [the king of Moav] burned the bones of the king of Edom (after capturing him and killing him in battle) [and mixed them into] plaster [that he subsequently used to build his home.]" (Amos 2:1)

32)[line 38]נח נפשיהNACH NAFSHEI- lit. his soul rested; i.e., he died

33)[line 39]אנא ענישתיה!ANA ANISHTEI!- I punished him! Each of the Amora'im in the following Gemara worried that Rav Ada bar Aba had died due to his own action or for having become upset with him. If one brings about the Heavenly punishment of another, he loses the right to sit close to HaSh-m in the next world (Shabbos 149b) (TOSFOS DH Ana).

34)[line 39]לטייתיהLATYASEI- I cursed him

35)[line 42]אדמגרמיתו גרמי בי אביי, תו אכלו בישרא [שמינא] בי רבאAD'MEGARMISU GARMEI BEI ABAYEI, TU ICHLU BISRA [SHEMEINA] BEI RAVA- instead of gnawing on bones in the Yeshiva of Abaye, go and eat [juicy] meat in the Yeshiva of Rava. As a Talmid of Rava, Rav Ada bar Aba attempted to convince the Talmidim of Abaye to come and learn under his Rebbi instead; this offended Abaye.

36)[line 44][דכי הוה אזיל לבי טבחא למשקל אומצא][KI HAVAH AZIL L'VEI TABCHA L'MISHKAL UMTZA]- [when he would go the butcher store to weigh (and purchase) raw meat]

37)[line 44]אנא שקילנא בישרא מיקמי שמעיה דרבא, דאנא עדיפנא מיניהANA SHAKILNA BISRA MI'KAMEI SHAM'EI D'RAVA, D'ANA ADIFNA MINEI- I will purchase meat before the messenger of Rava, since I am greater than he is. Rav Ada bar Aba was referring to the messenger of Rava, not Rava himself. Rava, however, became upset with these remarks since (a) his messenger's honor was equivalent to his own (Shelucho Shel Adam k'Moso) (YA'AVETZ); (b) those who heard him understood him to be referring to Rava (BEN YEHOYADA) (see also MAHRASHA)

38)[line 46]ריש כלהREISH KALAH- the Talmid Chacham who delivered the public Torah discourse on Shabbos

39a)[line 47]מיקמי דניעול לכלהMIKAMEI D'NEI'OL L'CHALAH- before [Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak] would go up to [deliver the] lecture

b)[line 47]מרהיט בהדיה רב אדא בר אבא לשמעתיהMARHIT BAHADEI RAV ADA BAR ABA LI'SHEMAITSEI- Rav Ada bar Aba would review the content of his [lecture] with him

40)[line 47]והדרHADAR- subsequently

41)[line 48]נקטוהNAKTUHA- they seized his [attention]

42)[line 49]דלא הוו בסיומאLO HAVU B'SIYUMA- (a) they were not at the meeting [at which it was decided that Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak should be appointed to deliver the Kalah] (first explanation of RASHI); (b) they were not at the [lecture at which Rava] finished [Maseches Bechoros, which ends with a discussion of Ma'aser Behemah] (second explanation of RASHI)

43)[line 49]שמעתתאSHEMAITSA- teachings

44)[line 50]דמעשר בהמהMA'ASER BEHEMAH - Tithing One's Animals

(a)During the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal that had been born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'aser Behemah (Vayikra 27:32). First one gathers all of the yearling animals of that species into a corral. They are then driven out of the corral through an opening narrow enough to allow only one to pass through at a time. One then stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.

(b)Animals designated as Ma'aser Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to Kidushin 55:4) and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.

(c)The Chachamim designated three dates by which a person must tithe his flock. After these times, no animal may not be eaten or sold until they have been tithed.

(d)Animals born in different years may not be joined together for the purpose of being counted for Ma'aser Behemah.

45)[line 51]אדהכי, נגה ליהAD'HACHI, NAGAH LEI- meanwhile, he became late

46)[line 52]יתיבYASIV- sitting

47)[line 53]קא (מנטרא) [נטרנא] לערסיה דרב אדא בר אבאKA (MANTERA) [NATARNA] L'ARSEI D'RAV ADA BAR ABA- I am waiting for the funeral procession (lit. bed) of Rav Ada bar Aba [to pass by, as I am sure that he has died since he has displayed a lack of honor for the Torah by delaying the lecture (see CHAZON ISH and BEN YEHOYADA)]

48)[line 53]קלאKALA- the news

49)[line 56]החלונותHA'CHALONOS- [if one has had] windows [facing the courtyard of another for three years, and his neighbor now wishes to build a wall opposite the windows]

50)[line 56]בין מלמעלן בין מלמטן בין [מ]כנגדןBEIN MIL'MA'ALAN BEIN MIL'MATAN BEIN MI'KENEGDAN- whether [it is matter of the wall being built] higher than, lower than, or opposite [the window]

51)[last line]וקמא היכי סמיך?KAMA HEICHI SAMICH?- how did [he build] the first wall closer [than four Amos]?

22b----------------------------------------22b

52)[line 2]והא 'מי שהיה כותלו סמוך לכותל חבירו' קתני!HA 'MI SHE'HAYAH KOSLO SAMUCH L'CHOSEL CHAVEIRO' KATANI!- but we learned in the Mishnah that [the case is one in which] one had had a wall close to the wall of another [which implies that the first wall had fallen down and he now wishes to rebuild it]!

53)[line 7]דדוושא דהכא מעלי להתםDAVSHA D'HACHA MA'ALI L'HASAM- that which people tread [upon the earth at the base of the wall] here [on this side] is beneficial to it there [on the other side, in that it tamps down the surrounding earth and firms its foundations]

54)[line 8]לא שנו אלא כותל גינהLO SHANU ELA KOSEL GINAH- we did not learn [that one must leave four Amos of his own Chatzer open next to another's wall] except [in a case in which] the wall borders a vegetable/herb garden [on the other side, since the earth at the base of the wall on that side is not tread upon]

55)[line 12]הא בעיר ישנהHA BE'IR YESHANAH- that [which one need not leave four Amos when there is a Chatzer on the other side] is in an old city [that has been standing for sixty years (MORDECHAI)]

56)[line 15]שלא יציץLO YATZITZ- he should not [be able to crouch down upon the wall and] peer [into his neighbor's window]

57)[line 16]שלא יאפילLO YA'AFIL- he should not darken [his neighbor's house by blocking light from entering the window]

58)[line 18]בבא מן הצדBA MIN HA'TZAD- [the wall] comes from the side [perpendicularly, such that it blocks light from the window, but leaves room on its sides to tread upon the earth at the base of the wall in which the window is set]

59)[line 18]וכמה?V'CHAMAH?- The Beraisa cited in our Gemara, which rules similarly to our Mishnah, differs from the Mishnah in two ways. It does explain the reasons for the Halachos, but it does not specify the distance that one must leave between the wall and the window. Rav Yayva understood that the Beraisa refers to a different case than that of our Mishnah. He therefore asks how much of a distance the Beraisa requires, in order to emphasize this distinction (TOSFOS DH v'Chama).

60)[line 19]כמלא רחב חלוןKI'MELO ROCHAV CHALON- equal to the width of the window

61)[line 20]והלא מציץ!VA'HALO METZITZ!- but he can still peer [into the window, since (a) the wall is so close, even though it is four Amos tall (RASHI); (b) he can lean over the edge of the wall such that the window is in his line of vision (TOSFOS DH b'Madir); (c) since the wall is not four Amos tall (RAMBAM Hilchos Shechenim 7:4; see also MAGID MISHNAH)]!

62)[line 20]במדיר את כותלוB'MADIR ES KOSLO- [the case is one in which] he slanted [the top of] his wall [toward his neighbor's house, such that the edge closest to himself is sharp, preventing him from either standing or leaning upon it]

63)[line 21]והא אנן תנן ארבע אמות!VEHA'ANAN TENAN ARBA AMOS!- but we learned in our Mishnah [that the distance between one's wall and the window of another is not equal to the width of the window, but rather] four Amos [and our Mishnah certainly includes a case in which the wall was built perpendicularly to the window, since it does not mention the concept of 'Davsha' (TOSFOS DH v'Ha)]!

64a)[line 21]כאן מרוח אחתKAN ME'RU'ACH ACHAS- here [in the Beraisa, one need not leave any more than the width of the window since he built one wall] on one side [of the window, and light can still enter from the side at an angle]

b)[line 22]כאן משתי רוחותKAN MI'SHTEI RUCHOS- here [in the Mishnah, one must leave four Amos since he built a wall] on each side [of the window, thereby blocking light from entering at an angle]

65a)[line 23]ואת הכותל מן המזחילה ד' אמותV'ES HA'KOSEL MIN HA'MAZCHEILAH ARBA AMOS- and [when one sells a house to another (TOSFOS DH Kedei), he must leave him] four Amos from the wall to the rain gutter along the roof

b)[line 23]כדי שיהא זוקף את הסולםKEDEI SHE'YEHEI ZOKEF ES HA'SULAM- so that he is able to stand a ladder [and lean it against the gutter when he needs to clean it out from dirt and pebbles]

66)[line 25]במזחילה משופעתMAZCHEILAH MESHUPA'AS- a gutter at the edge of an overhanging roof

67)[line 26]תותיהTUSEI- under [the eaves]

68)[line 27]השובךSHOVACH- a dovecote

69)[line 28]כדי שלא תקפוץ הנמייהKEDEI SHE'LO TIKPOTZ HA'NEMIYAH- a marten (an animal similar to and slightly larger than a weasel)

70)[line 30]לימא מתניתין דלא כר' יוסיLEIMA MASNISIN D'LO K'REBBI YOSI- let us suggest that the ruling of our Mishnah does not follow the opinion of Rebbi Yosi (see next entry). RASHI explains that the other Mishnayos cited in our Perek until this point certainly do not follow the opinion of Rebbi Yosi; our Gemara asks if our Mishnah, too, must express the opinion of only the Rabanan. TOSFOS (DH Leima) cites RABEINU CHANANEL who maintains that just the opposite is true: the Mishnayos of our Perek until this point certainly do follow the opinion of Rebbi Yosi. All of the cases described are ones of "Girei Didei" (see below, entry #71). The previous Mishnah fits this category since as soon as the wall is built, the earth next to the wall cannot be tread upon.

71)[line 31]זה חופר בתוך שלו, וזה נוטע בתוך שלוZEH CHOFER B'SOCH SHE'LO, V'ZEH NOTE'A B'SOCH SHE'LO- this one may dig [a pit] in his [property], and this one may plant [a tree] in his [property]. Unlike the Rabanan who rule that one may not place an item in his own possession that may damage the property of another at a later date, Rebbi Yosi rules that "Al ha'Nizak l'Harchik Es Atzmo" - it is incumbent upon he who stands to suffer the damage who must distance his property (Mishnah, 25b).

72)[line 33]כי הוינן בי רב כהנאKI HAVINAN BEI RAV KAHANA- when I was learning in the Yeshivah of Rav Kahana

73)[line 34]בגירי דידיהGIREI DIDEI- lit. his arrows; i.e., his direct action (e.g., one who digs a pit close enough to that of another that each shovel strike weakens the wall of the first pit; 17b).

74)[line 34]זמנין דבהדי דמנח ליה (יתבא בחור ו)קפצהZIMNIN DEVA'HADEI D'MANACH LEI (YASVA B'CHOR V')KAFTZAH- sometimes as he leans [the ladder onto the wall, the marten] (sits in its hole and) jumps [into the dovecote (see Insights)

75)[line 35]גרמאGERAMA - Indirect Damage

(a)Damage caused indirectly is termed "Gerama b'Nizakin." According to all opinions, one who caused such damage is exempt from payment. Although he is held responsible in Heaven for his actions, Beis Din cannot force him to make restitution. An example of a Gerama (damage caused indirectly) is one who places poison in front of an animal belonging to another. Although the animal ate the poison and died, he did not force the animal to ingest the poison - he merely created the situation that made it possible for the animal to do so on its own.

(b)"Garmi" refers to damage that, while still indirect, is more direct than Gerama (Rishonim disagree as to the precise definition of "more direct"; see TOSFOS DH Zos for three opinions). Rebbi Meir maintains that one is responsible to pay in a case of Garmi. An example of Garmi involves one who burns a bill of debt belonging to another. Although the document itself held no intrinsic value, it would have allowed the creditor to collect his debt. Rebbi Meir rules that Beis Din can hold one responsible for the value of the debt in such a case.

(c)RASHI (DH Gerama) apparently understands the indirect damage caused when one places a ladder in position for a marten to jump into his neighbor's dovecote to be a case of Garmi.

76)[line 36]גרמא בניזקין אסורGERAMA B'NIZAKIN ASUR- [even according to those opinions which rule that one need not pay for damage caused through Gerama/Garmi after the fact,] causing damage indirectly is forbidden [and one may therefore prevent his neighbor from creating such a situation to begin with]

77)[last line]תאליTA'ALEI- small date palms

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