[12a - 46 lines; 12b - 48 lines]

1)[line 1]בית סתום יש לו ד' אמותBAYIS SASUM YESH LO ARBA AMOS- a house [with a] sealed [doorway still] has four Amos [in the Chatzer]

2)[line 2](קבר)(KEVER)- (a burial chamber)

3)[line 2]אינו מטמא כל סביביוEINO METAMEI KOL SEVIVAV (TUM'AS MES: MAGA, MASA, OHEL - The Spread of Spiritual Impurity through Contact with, the Carrying of, and a Canopy over a Corpse)

(a)If one comes into contact with or carries a Mes (dead body) or a part of a Mes at least the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley), he becomes Tamei.

(b)When at least a k'Zayis of a Mes, or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food that has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(c)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah.

(d)In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(e)Should one come into contact with (Maga) or pass over (Ohel) a Kever (grave) that does not have a space at least the size of a Tefach between the Mes and the roof of the Kever, he becomes Tamei. Mid'Rabanan, one who comes within four Amos of a Kever becomes Tamei as well. This was decreed for fear that one who is that close to the mausoleum will either come into contact with it or pass over it without realizing that he had done so. The Beraisa cited in our Gemara teaches (if one is Gores the words in parentheses; see the MAHARSHAL, the MAHARAM, and TESHUVOS HA'RASHBA 1:136) that this is not true unless the Kever is completely sealed. If a doorway exists, even if it is sealed shut, then only the area in front of the door causes one to become Tamei. The other areas around the grave do not cause Tum'ah.

4)[line 4]בית סתוםBAYIS SASUM- a house [with a corpse inside of it whose doorway has been] sealed [shut]

5)[line 5]פרץ את פצימיו, מטמא כל סביביוPARATZ ES PETZIMAV, METAMEI KOL SEVIVAV- if he removed its doorposts, lintel, and doorsill [and then sealed it shut], then (a) one who enters the four Amos surrounding it becomes Tamei [since it is now like a Kever (see above, entry #3)] (RASHI); (b) one who passes underneath any beam projecting from the house that is at least a Tefach wide becomes Tamei [since it is no longer obvious how the corpse will leave the building, and therefore the concept of "Sof Tum'ah la'Tzes" (see Background to Chulin 125:24) cannot be applied] (RABEINU SHIMSHON cited by TOSFOS DH Paratz)

6)[line 6]מבואות המפולשות לעיר אחרתMEVO'OS HA'MEFULASHOS L'IR ACHERES- alleyways [in one city] that open to [the way to] another city

7)[line 8]בני אותה העיר מעכבין עליהןBNEI OSAH HA'IR ME'AKVIN ALEIHEN- the residents of that city [that the path leads to] may prevent them [from doing so]

8)[line 11]מצר שהחזיקו בו רבים, אסור לקלקלוMETZAR SHE'HICHZIKU BO RABIM, ASUR L'KALKELO- one may not reclaim (lit. ruin) an area (lit. boundary) that the public has taken hold of [with permission]

9)[line 13](שבררו דרך לעצמן)(BIRERU DERECH L'ATZMAN)- (who chose a path for themselves [in a private field in which the route of the path that they had had the right to walk upon had been forgotten; see 100a])

10)[line 15]לרה"ר (לרשות הרבים)LI'RESHUS HA'RABIM- into a public area (such as a town square or main road)

11)[line 16]בני רה"ר מעכבין עליהןBNEI RESHUS HA'RABIM ME'AKVIN ALEIHEN- those who populate the public area may prevent them [from erecting gates, since the overflow from the Reshus ha'Rabim spills into adjacent Mevo'os when the Reshus ha'Rabim becomes crowded]

12)[line 17]סבור מינהSAVUR MINAH- [those who heard this ruling] thought [to understand] from it

13)[line 17]בד' אמותARBA AMOS- [the] four Amos [of the Mavoy that are closest to the Reshus ha'Rabim]

14)[line 20]לענין טומאהL'INYAN TUM'AH (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID / BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM - That which May Have Become Tamei in a Public or Private Domain)

(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or has become Tamei, its status depends upon its location. If the object is in a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), then the object may be considered Tahor. If it is in a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), then it must be considered Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the law regarding a Sotah - a woman suspected of being unfaithful to her husband. If, after her husband warned her not to seclude herself with a certain man, a woman did so, then she becomes forbidden to him out of doubt that she was unfaithful. From the fact that this doubt, which is treated stringently, arose in seclusion, we learn that when two or fewer people are present when a doubt arises regarding the Tum'ah/Taharah status of a person or object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. This is the definition of a Reshus ha'Yachid for purposes of 'Tum'ah. If there are more than two people present in the area wherein the doubt arose, it is then a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. In such a case, the person or object is judged to be Tahor (see Sotah 28a-b).

15)[line 20]זימנין דדחקי בני רה"ר ועיילי טובאZIMNIN D'DACHKEI BNEI RESHUS HA'RABIM V'AILEI TUVA- sometimes those who populate the public area press and enter deep into [the Mavoy]

16)[line 23]מר כי אתריה, ומר כי אתריהMAR KI ASREI, U'MAR KI ASREI- [the Tana Kama ruled that it is not worth working a fieldless than the size in which one can plant nine Kav (50 x 75 Amos)] according to the quality of land where he lived [which was of relatively poor quality], and [Rebbi Yehudah ruled that it is worth working a field in which one can plant only four and a half Kav (50 x 37.5 Amos)] according to the quality of land where he lived [which was of relatively high quality]

17)[line 24]בבבל מאי?B'VAVEL MAI?- what [is the minimal size of the field that each must receive for one partner to force the other to divide] in Bavel [where the quality of land is even less than that of the Tana Kama]?

18)[line 24]בי רדו יומאBEI REDU YOMA- [each must receive] a field that requires one [full] day to plow it [since oxen to do so must be paid by the day, and therefore hiring them for less time than that would cause the owner to operate at a loss]

19a)[line 25]אי יומא (ד)זרעאIY YOMA D'ZAR'A- if [that which it takes a day to plow the field refers to] the day that it is sown [when it is easier to plow, due to that which it had been recently plowed at the beginning of the season]

b)[line 25]תרי יומי כרבא לא הויTREI YOMA KARVA LO HAVEI- it will not take a [full] two days to plow it at the beginning of the season [but rather between one and two days, and the owner will lose money since he must hire oxen by the day]

20)[line 27]דכריב ותניD'CHARIV V'TANI- [and it will still take him a full day to plow it when he sows] since he re-plows it [afterward in order to cover the seeds with soil] (see alternate Girsa and explanations in RASHI and TOSFOS DH v'Iy)

21)[line 28]בהדוריB'HADURI- [and it will still take him two full days to plow it at the beginning of the season since] [we are discussing a field] whose earth is tough and whose surface includes many rises and valleys

22a)[line 28]דוולאDAVLA- [the minimal size necessary that each must receive for one partner to force the other to divide] a field irrigated (a) from a well located therein (RASHI); (b) by a pitcher (RABEINU CHANANEL cited - and rejected - by TOSFOS DH Davla)

b)[line 29]בי דאלו יומאBEI DALU YOMA- [is] (a) that which allows each to irrigate [their entire field from the well] every day (RASHI); (b) that which requires a full day to be irrigated (RABEINU CHANANEL cited - and rejected - by TOSFOS DH Davla)

23)[line 29]פרדסאPARDESA- a vineyard

24)[line 30]בת שלושת קביןBAS SHELOSHES KAVIN- a vineyard equivalent in size to a field in which one can plant three Kav of grain(approximately 3.6, 4.16, or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions; namely, 25 x 50 Amos)

25)[line 31]מנתMANAS- a share

26)[line 33]אין אלו אלא דברי נביאותEIN ELU ELA DIVREI NEVI'US- these [words] are nothing less than words of a prophecy (implying that (a) there is no rhyme or reason to them; RASHI, TOSFOS DH Amar Rebbi Yosi; (b) they are absolutely correct; RI cited in TOSFOS to Eruvin 60b DH Ein)

27a)[line 34]תלת אציאתה בני תריסר [תריסר] גופניTELAS ATZI'ASA BNEI TREISAR [TREISAR] GUFNEI- three groupings of twelve grapevines each

b)[line 35]כי היכי דרפיק גברא ביומאKI HEICHI D'RAFIK GAVRA B'YOMA- which are enough for one person to hoe [around their roots in order to aerate] them for one [full] day

28)[line 35]רבי אבדימי דמן חיפהREBBI AVDIMEI D'MIN CHAIFAH- Rebbi Avdimei from Chaifah

29)[line 36]ניטלהNITLAH- was removed

30)[line 37]אטו חכם לאו נביא הוא?ATU CHACHAM LAV NAVI HU?- can not a Chacham be a Navi [as well]?

31)[line 38]מן הנביאיםMIN HA'NEVI'IM- from the prophets [who are not Chachamim] (see Insights)

32)[line 40]"[לִמְנוֹת יָמֵינוּ כֵּן הוֹדַע,] וְנָבִיא לְבַב חָכְמָה""[LIM'NOS YAMEINU, KEN HODA,] V'NAVI LEVAV CHOCHMAH"- "[To count our days, so He made known,] to bring us to a heart of wisdom" (Tehilim 90:12). This verse explains that HaSh-m revealed from the creation of the world that we would have a long enough lifespan to acquire wisdom. In our Gemara, Ameimar interprets the word "Navi" - "to bring" - to mean instead "a prophet," reading the end of the verse as, "... and a prophet [will acquire] a heart of wisdom."

33)[line 41]מי נתלה במי?MI NISLEH B'MI?- [in this comparison,] who is made dependent upon whom?

34)[line 42]תדעTEDA- lit. know [that Chachamim retain the ability to prophesize]; i.e., a proof can be drawn from the following

35)[line 42]דאמר גברא רבה מילתא, ומתאמרא משמיה דגברא רבה אחרינא כוותיהD'AMAR GAVRA RABAH MILSA, U'MIS'AMRA MISHMEI D'GAVRA RABAH ACHARINA KAVASEI- for a great man [in Torah] will say something [novel in his learning], and the same idea is then cited in the name of another great man

36)[line 44]ומאי קושיא?U'MAI KUSHYA?- and what question would there be [if this was not a result of prophecy]? i.e., what proof does this offer?

37)[line 44]תרוייהו בני חד מזלא נינהוTARVAIHU BNEI CHAD MAZLA NINHU- the two of them were born under the same constellation [and therefore think alike]


38)[line 1]דר' עקיבא בר יוסףREBBI AKIVA BAR YOSEF- (the famous Tana) Rebbi Akiva (son of Yosef) [who was such a great sage that it is impossible to suggest that another Talmid Chacham arrived at the same conclusion that he did simply due to that which they were born under the same Mazal]

39)[line 4]הלכה למשה מסיניHALACHAH L'MOSHE MI'SINAI- an oral tradition taught to Moshe Rabeinu at Har Sinai [that has no source in the written Torah, and yet has the same status as those Halachos that do]

40)[line 5]ודלמא כסומא בארובה?V'DILMA K'SUMA B'ARUBA?- but perhaps [the reason why the Chacham came to the same ruling as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai] was [due to luck] similar to a blind man [who managed to find his way down from the roof] through a skylight [all on his own]?

41)[line 5]ולאו טעם (יהיב) [קאמר]?V'LAV TA'AM (YAHIV) [KA'AMAR]?- (the Gemara answers) did [the Chacham who came to the same ruling as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai] not explain a reasoning [for his ruling]? [It must be that he merited prophecy through his toil in Torah!]

42)[line 8]לשוטיםSHOTIM- fools; those who are deranged

43)[line 9]דהוה קאי ברסתקא דמחוזאHAVAH KA'I B'RISTEKA D'MECHOZA- he was standing in the town square of (the city) Mechoza

44)[line 10]ריש מתיבתא דמליך [השתא] במתא מחסיא, "טביומי" חתיםREISH MESIVTA D'MALICH [HASHTA] B'MASA MECHASYA, "TIVYOMEI" CHASIM- he who will [from this point] reign as the dean of the Yeshivah in (the city of) Masa Mechasya signs his name as "Tivyomei"

45)[line 12]אנא!ANA!- it is I!

46)[line 13]לדידי קיימא לי שעתאL'DIDI KAIMA LI SHAITA- the time is fortunate for me [to become Rosh ha'Yeshivah in Masa Mechasya]

47)[line 13]קם, אתאKAM, ASA- he got up and went [to Masa Mechasya]

48)[line 13]אדאתא, אימנו רבנן לאותביה לרב אחא מדפתי ברישאAD'ASA, IMNU RABANAN L'OSVEI L'RAV ACHA MI'DIFTI B'REISHA- by the time that he came, the Rabanan [in Masa Mechasya] has voted to appoint Rav Acha from Difti as the Rosh ha'Yeshivah

49)[line 15]שדור זוגא דרבנן לגביה לאימלוכי ביהSHADUR ZUGA D'RABANAN L'GABEI L'IMLUCHEI BEI- they sent a pair of Rabanan to [Mar bar Rav Ashi] to ask his permission [to appoint Rav Acha mi'Difti as Rosh ha'Yeshivah]

50)[line 16](עכביה) [עכבינהו]IKVINHU- he detained [the pair]

51)[line 16]הדרHADAR- subsequently

52)[line 17]עד דמלו בי עשרהAD D'MALU BEI ASARAH- until he completed a quorum of ten [Chachamim who remained with him]

53)[line 18]פתח הוא ותנא ודרשPASACH HU V'TANA V'DARASH- he began to teach and expound

54)[line 19]בכלהKALAH- the tractate taught in the Yeshivah

55)[line 19]קרי רב אחא אנפשיהKARI RAV ACHA A'NAFSHEI- Rav Acha [mi'Difti] applied [the following axiom] to himself

56a)[line 20]כל המריעין לו, לא במהרה מטיבין לוKOL HA'MERI'IN LO, LO BI'MEHERAH METIVIN LO- to those whom they send misfortune [from Heaven] (i.e., myself), they do not quickly send good fortune

b)[line 21]וכל המטיבין לו, לא במהרה מריעין לוV'CHOL HA'METIVIN LO, LO BI'MEHERAH MERI'IN LO- and to those whom they send good fortune [from Heaven] (i.e., Mar bar Rav Ashi), they do not quickly send misfortune (see also Bava Kama 80b and TOSFOS here DH Kol)

57)[line 23]הוה יתבה בכנפיה דאבוהHAVA YASVAH B'CHANFEI D'AVUHA- she was sitting in her father's lap

58)[line 24]מאן מינייהו בעית?MAN MINAIHU BA'IS?- which [of these two students of mine] do you wish to marry?

59)[line 27]יש לו שתי לבבותYESH LO SHTEI LEVAVOS- he is of two minds [and cannot easily make decisions]

60)[line 28]"[וְ]אִישׁ נָבוּב יִלָּבֵב""[V']ISH NAVUV YILAVEV..."- "[And] a hollow man shall acquire a heart..." (Iyov 11:12). The simple understanding of this verse is that a person who lacks understanding will acquire wisdom. Rebbi Avdimei d'Min Chaifah interprets it to mean that a man whose stomach is empty will "Yilavev" - have "two hearts."

61)[line 29]"נְבוּב לוּחוֹת [תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ]""NEVUV LUCHOS [TA'ASEH OSO...]"- "[Fashion the outer Mizbe'ach] of [cedar] planks with a hollow inside... (Shemos 27:8).

62)[line 29]ומתרגמינן, "חליל לוחין"U'METARGEMINAN, "CHALIL LUCHIN"- and [these words] are translated in Targum Onkelus as, "planks with a hollow inside"

63)[line 31]הרגיל בייןHA'RAGIL B'YAYIN- one who is accustomed to [drinking] wine

64)[line 31]לבו אטום כבתולהLIBO ATUM KI'VESULAH- his heart is sealed as a virgin; i.e., he cannot think clearly

65)[line 31]מפקחוMEFAKCHO- will sharpen his [senses]

66)[line 32]"וְתִירוֹשׁ יְנוֹבֵב בְּתוּלוֹת""... V'SIROSH YENOVEV BESULOS"- "... and wine will cause young maidens to sing joyously" (Zecharyah 9:17). This verse is part of a prophecy regarding the generation of Mashi'ach. Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua interprets it to mean, "and wine shall hollow out the heart that is sealed as a virgin."

67)[line 33]פשיטאPESHITA- [the following] is clear

68a)[line 33]חלק בכור וחלק פשוטCHELEK BECHOR V'CHELEK PASHUT - The Double Inheritance of a Firstborn Son

(a)A son firstborn to his father, assuming that he was the first viable child born to that father, inherits a double share of his father's estate (Devarim 21:17; Bechoros 46a). If there are two brothers, the Bechor receives two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are three, then he receives half (two quarters, with each remaining brother receiving a quarter), and so on.

(b)Our Gemara refers to the two portions of the inheritance received by a Bechor - the regular share that he receives ("Chelek Pashut"), and the additional share that he receives due to that which he is a Bechor ("Chelek Bechor").

b)[line 34]יהבינן ליה אחד מצראYAHAVINAN LEI A'CHAD MATZRA- we give him upon an adjoining border [and he need not pay for this convenience]

69)[line 34]יבם מאי?YAVAM MAI? (YIBUM - Levirate Marriage)

Should a married man die without children, his widow is not then free to marry whomever she pleases. The brothers of her deceased husband have a Mitzvah to perform Yibum (levirate marriage); that is, they are obligated to marry her (Devarim 25:5-10). If the deceased has more than one brother, the oldest brother is offered the Mitzvah of Yibum first. The brother who performs Yibum inherits his deceased brother's portion of their father's inheritance when their father dies. These Halachos are derived from the verse which states, "And it will be that the first son born to them will be called after the deceased brother..." (Devarim 25:6). The Gemara interprets these words to mean, "And the firstborn brother has the Mitzvah of Yibum assuming that his deceased brother's wife is able to produce a child, and he inherits his deceased brother's portion in their father's estate..." (Yevamos 24a).

70)[line 35]היא היאHI HI- [the ruling] is the same

71)[line 35]בכור קרייה רחמנאBECHOR KARYEI RACHMANA- the Torah calls him a Bechor (see above, entry #69)

72)[line 37]הוייתו כבכור, ואין חלוקתו כבכורHAVYASO KI'VECHOR, V'EIN CHALUKASO KI'VECHOR- he (his share) is like a Bechor [in that he receives a second portion], but [his share] is not distributed [in twoconnected parcels] like a Bechor [without paying for the convenience if his brothers insist]

73)[line 37]דזבן ארעא אמצרא דבי נשיהZAVAN AR'A A'MATZRA D'VEI NASHYA- he purchased a field on the border of his father's lands

74)[line 38]כי קא פלגוKI KA PALGU- when [he and his brothers] divided [their father's estate after he died]

75)[line 39]כופין על מדת סדוםKOFIN AL MIDAS SEDOM- we force one not to act as they did in Sedom; i.e., Beis Din will force one to grant another that which benefits him, when it does not cause the benefactor any loss

76a)[line 40]אמרי ליה אחיהAMREI LEI ACHEI- [this is not Midas Sedom, since] his brothers can say to him

b)[line 41]מעלינן ליה עלויא כי נכסי דבי בר מריוןMA'ALINAN LEI ALUYA KI NICHSEI D'VEI BAR MERYON- (a) this [field] is as valuable to us as those of the estate of [the wealthy] bar Meryon [since our father's fields require rain in order to thrive and this one seems to us to be in the best position to produce] (RASHI); (b) we insist that you pay us a premium price for this [field] similar to that which would be charged for the estate of [the wealthy] bar Meryon (TOSFOS DH Ma'alinan)

77)[line 42]תרי ארעתא אתרי נגריTREI AR'ATA A'TREI NAGREI- (a) [if one purchased a field on the border of his father's lands and his father leaves an inheritance of] two fields that are each located on a [respective] irrigation ditch (RASHI); (b) [if one dies and leaves an inheritance of] two fields that are each located on a [respective] irrigation ditch [and one brother wishes to divide the fields between himself and his brother while the other wishes to divide each field in half] (TOSFOS DH Ma'alinan)

78)[line 43]כופין על מדת סדוםKOFIN AL MIDAS SEDOM- (a) [Beis Din] will force [the brother who does not own a bordering field to give his brother the field that borders his] since he stands to lose nothing] (RASHI); (b) [Beis Din] will force [the brother who does not wish to take one field and give his brother the other to do so anyway] since he stands to lose nothing] (TOSFOS DH Ma'alinan)

79)[line 44]מדוילMADVIL- produce water

80)[line 45]תרתי [ארעתא] אחד נגראTARTEI [AR'ATA] A'CHAD NAGRA- (a) [if one purchased a field on the border of his father's lands and his father leaves an inheritance of] two fields that are located on a single irrigation ditch (RASHI); (b) [if one dies and leaves an inheritance of] two fields that are each located on a single irrigation ditch [and one brother wishes to divide the fields between himself and his brother while the other wishes to divide each field in half] (TOSFOS DH Ma'alinan)

81)[line 47]מצי אמר, "בעינא דאפיש אריסי"MATZI AMAR, "BA'INA D'AFISH ARISEI"- [the brother who wished (a) to own a field in between his brothers fields (RASHI); (b) to split each field with his brother (TOSFOS DH Ma'alinan)] can say, "I would like for [my brother to require] more sharecroppers [since his fields are spread out, as they will incidentally do a better job of keeping my field guarded]"

82)[last line]לאו מילתא היאLAV MILSA HI- is not a [Halachic] consideration [enough to remove his wish from Midas Sedom]