[11a - 52 lines; 11b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]לא סיימוה קמיהLO SAIMUHA KAMEI- they did not finish [the story of what Rava did with the money from Ifra Hurmiz] in front of him

2)[line 2]קופהKUPAH- lit. the box; i.e., the fund

3)[line 3]בשני בצורתSHENEI BATZORES- years of famine

4)[line 4]העבודה!HA'AVODAH!- [I hereby swear by] the service [of the Beis ha'Mikdash]!

5)[line 6]אשהISHAH- [this] woman (referring to herself in the third person)

6)[line 7]לימיםL'YAMIM- some time later

7)[line 7]ונטה למותNATAH LA'MUS- he was close to (lit. leaned toward) death

8)[line 8]מלאכי השרתMAL'ACHEI HA'SHAREIS- the ministering angels

9)[line 11]בשנים מועטות הללו?B'SHANIM MU'ATOS HALALU?- at such a young age?

10)[line 12]קרעו לו גזר דינוKAR'U LO GEZAR DINO- they ripped up his judgment; i.e., they annulled the Heavenly decree against him

11)[line 14]במונבז המלךMUNBAZ HA'MELECH- (a) King Munbaz, monarch of (1) Adiabene, who converted to Judaism (SEFER YUCHASIN); (2) India, who converted to Judaism (ARUCH); (b) King Munbaz of the Chashmona'i dynasty (see Background to Yoma 16:1) (RASHI, RABEINU GERSHOM, TOSFOS to Kesuvos 7b)

12)[line 14]שבזבז אוצרותיוBIZBEZ OTZROSAV- emptied his treasuries [to feed the masses]

13)[line 15]וחברו עליוCHIBRU ALAV- jointly opposed him

14)[line 16]גנזוGANZU- hoarded

15)[line 17]"אֱמֶת מֵאֶרֶץ תִּצְמָח, וְצֶדֶק מִשָּׁמַיִם נִשְׁקָף""EMES ME'ERETZ TITZMACH, V'TZEDEK MI'SHAMAYIM NISHKAF"- "Truth shall sprout from the earth, and righteousness shall look down from Heaven." (Tehilim 85:12) King Munbaz interpreted this verse to mean, "When truth sprouts from earth, then those who practice it will be dealt with righteously in Heaven" (see RASHI).

16)[line 18]שהיד שולטת בוSHEHA'YAD SHOLETES BO- that the hand [of another] could [conceivably] control it

17)[line 19]"צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאֶךָ...""TZEDEK U'MISHPAT MECHON KIS'ECHA..."- "Righteousness and justice shall firm your throne..." (Tehilim 89:15). King Munbaz interpreted this verse to mean that actions of righteousness and justice are stored, as it were, under the throne of HaSh-m.

18)[line 20](דבר) [במקום] שאין עושה פירות(DAVAR) [B'MAKOM] SHE'EIN OSEH PEIROS- (that which) [in a place where it] does not produce further dividends

19)[line 21]"אִמְרוּ צַדִּיק כִּי טוֹב, כִּי פְרִי מַעַלְלֵיהֶם יֹאכֵלוּ""IMRU TZADIK KI TOV, KI FRI MA'ALELEIHEM YOCHELU"- "Tell [every] righteous person that [he has done] well, for they shall reap the dividends of their deeds." (Yeshayah 3:10)

20)[line 23]"...וּלְךָ תִּהְיֶה צְדָקָה...""...U'LECHA TIYEHEH TZEDAKAH..."- "[You shall surely return the security when the sun sets, and he will lie with his garment and bless you;] and for you it will be considered as charity [before HaSh-m your G-d]." (Devarim 24:13) This verse addresses a creditor who had seized a garment from a poor debtor as a security against the loan. King Munbaz interpreted this phrase to imply, "giving charity is in your own best interests."

21)[line 24]"וְהָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ צִדְקֶךָ, כְּבוֹד ה' יַאַסְפֶךָ""... V'HALACH LEFANECHA TZIDKECHA, KEVOD HASH-M YA'ASFECHA"- "[Then the light of your success shall break through like the light of morning, and your healing shall quickly sprout,] and the charity that you [have given] shall go before you, [and] the honor of HaSh-m shall gather you in." (Yeshayah 58:8) King Munbaz interpreted this to mean that the charity that one has given paves his way to Olam ha'Ba, where HaSh-m will place his soul with those of the righteous.

22)[line 26]כל שהואKOL SHE'HU- whatsoever

23)[line 28]תרי תנאי ואליבא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאלTREI TANA'EI VA'ALIBA D'RABAN SHIMON BEN GAMLIEL- (the Gemara answers) [there is a disagreement between] two Tana'im as to the opinion of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel

24)[line 29]החצרCHATZER- a courtyard [in front of a house, wherein people who lived at the time of the Mishnayos and Gemara performed most of their daily chores] (RASHI to 2a)

25)[line 29]ארבע אמותARBA AMOS- four square Amos (four Amos equals approximately six feet or a bit less than two meters)

26)[line 30]השדהSADEH- a field [usually located in a valley, in which grain grows]

27)[line 30]תשעה קביןTISH'A KABIN- the area needed to plant nine Kav of grain (namely, 3,750 square Amos)

28)[line 32]הגינהGINAH- a garden [in which vegetables or herbs are grown]

29)[line 33]בית רובעBEIS ROVA- an area that will grow a quarter of a Kav

30a)[line 33]הטרקליןTERAKLIN- a manor

b)[line 33]המורןMORAN- a mansion

c)[line 33]השובךSHOVACH- a dovecote

d)[line 34]הטליתTALIS- a cloak

e)[line 34]המרחץMERCHATZ- a bathhouse

f)[line 34]בית הבדBEIS HA'BAD- an olive press

g)[line 34]בית השלחיןBEIS HA'SHELACHIN- a field with an irrigation source located within it [that retains its value to a greater degree than a regular field since one is able to grow within it more delicate, expensive crops]

31)[line 35]ושמו עליוSHEMO ALAV- it retains its description

32)[line 37]וכתבי הקדשKISVEI HA'KODESH- holy writings [of the twenty-four books of Tanach, which were written in scrolls similar to a Sefer Torah]

33)[line 38]חוץ משל פתחיםCHUTZ MI'SHEL PESACHIM- aside from [the four Amos extending from] the doorway [into the Chatzer, for the entire width of the doorway, in which he has the right to unload animals]

34)[line 41]ואיכא דרמי להו מירמאIKA D'RAMI LEHU MIRMA- there are those who pose them as a contradiction to one another

35)[line 44]חצר מתחלקת לפי פתחיהCHATZER MISCHALEKES L'FI PESACHEHA- a Chatzer is divided [amongst brothers who inherited it from their father] according to the doors that open into it (i.e., if one brother inherited a house with a single door that opens into the Chatzer, and the other inherited a house with two doors that open into the Chatzer, and their father did not specify to whom the Chatzer belonged, then the first brother receives one-third of the Chatzer while the second brother receives two-thirds)

36)[line 47]נוטלNOTEL- takes

37)[line 50]מאי עבידתייהו?MAI AVIDTAIHU?- why do they [belong to him any more than his share the rest of the Chatzer]

38a)[line 50]שמונה אמות באורך החצרSHEMONAH AMOS B'ORECH HA'CHATZER- eight Amos along the length of the Chatzer [in front of his door]

b)[line 51]וארבע אמות ברוחב החצרV'ARBA AMOS B'ROCHAV HA'CHATZER- and four Amos along the width of the Chatzer [in front of those eight Amos of length]

39)[line 51]פירא דסופליPIRA D'SUFLEI- a trench [in a Chatzer whose purpose is to be filled] with date pits [as animal feed]

40)[last line]דלא מייחד ליה פתחאLO MEYACHED LEI PISCHA- there is no doorway that opens directly to [the trench, but rather he must walk from the front doorway of his house to the trench]

11b----------------------------------------11b

41)[line 2]אכסדרהACHSADRAH- (a) a roof held up by pillars in each corner that is open on all four sides [although it is often adjacent to a house or other building such that it has one or two walls] (RASHI to Eruvin 90a); (b) a covered area open on one (or two - see TOSFOS to Eruvin 94a DH bi'Shtei Ruchos and to Eruvin 25b DH Achsadrah b'Vik'ah) of its sides (TOSFOS DH Hacha)

42)[line 3]טעמא מאי? משום פירוק משאוTAIMA MAI? MISHUM PIRUK MASA'O- why is it [that one receives four Amos in front of his doorway before the Chatzer is divided]? -So that he can unload his [animal's] burden [in front of his house]

43)[line 4]אפשר דעייל לגואי ומפרקEFSHAR D'AYIL L'GAVA'I U'MEFAREK- it is possible for him to bring [his animal] inside [the Achsadrah] and unload it [since one does not have any furniture there due to that which it is open to the elements]

44)[line 7]באכסדרה דבי רבACHSADRAH D'VEI RAV- (a) an Achsadrah with walls that have many windows (RASHI); (b) An Achsadrah with three full walls and a fourth that is four Amos high (first explanation, TOSFOS DH Hacha); (c) An Achsadrah with three full walls and a fourth that is ten Tefachim high (second explanation, TOSFOS DH Hacha)

45)[line 8]אדרונא מעליא הואIDRUNA MA'ALYA HU- it is a proper room [that one is able to store items in and would therefore not want to bring an animal inside of]

46)[line 8]באכסדרה רומייתאACHSADRAH ROMIYASA- (a) An Achsadrah with four walls that do not reach the ceiling (RASHI); (b) An Achsadrah with three full walls and a fourth that is ten Tefachim high (first explanation, TOSFOS DH Hacha); (c) An Achsadrah with three full walls and a fourth that is less than ten Tefachim high (second explanation, TOSFOS DH Hacha)

47)[line 9]בית שערBEIS SHA'AR- a gatehouse; a small house built at the entranceway to a manor

48)[line 9]ומרפסתMIRPESES- a common balcony from which the residents of a second story descend by way of a ladder into a courtyard

49)[line 11]אין להן אלא ד' אמות בלבדEIN LA'HEN ELA ARBA AMOS BILVAD- they do not have any more than four Amos [in the courtyard amongst all of them]

50)[line 12]לול של תרנגוליןLUL SHEL TARNEGOLIN- a chicken coop

51)[line 14]מטפס ועולה, מטפס ויורדMETAPES V'OLEH, METAPES V'YORED- [each chicken] may clamber up [the wall] and clamber down [the wall into the coop]

52)[line 15]מקורהMEKORAH- roofed

53)[line 18]לא מבעיא קירויו מלגיוLO MIB'AYA KIRUYO MIL'GAV- not only [is this true] if its roof is over the inner half [away from the Chatzer]

54)[line 21]מבויMAVOY- an alleyway enclosed on three sides, from which many courtyards are accessible (from "Mevo ha'Ir" - "entrance to the city"; Shoftim 1:24)

55)[line 21]שבקש להחזיר פתחו למבוי אחרSHE'BIKESH L'HACHZIR PISCHO L'MAVOY ACHER- who wishes to open a doorway into a different Mavoy [bordering his house on another side]

56)[line 24]אכסניאACHSANYA- [Rav Huna further asked of Rav Ami a question regarding] (a) a city that must host the king's army (RASHI); (b) compost produced by a caravan at the place that it had encamped (TOSFOS DH Achsanya)

57)[line 24]לפי בני אדם מתחלקתL'FI BNEI ADAM MISCHALEKES- (a) is [the number of soldiers that each homeowner must host] determined by the number of people [who live in the house, wherein houses with fewer residents must house a greater number of soldiers] (RASHI, according to the understanding of the NEMUKEI YOSEF); (b) is [the number of soldiers that each homeowner must host] determined by the wealth of] each individual [wherein wealthier people must host a greater number of solders] (RASHI as explained by the CHASAM SOFER in Siman 19); (c) is [the number of soldiers that each homeowner must host] determined by the number of people [who live in the house, wherein houses with more residents must host a greater number of soldiers since each individual is obligated in the Achsanya] (RASHI as explained by SHIUREI REBBI SHIMON ROZOVSKY in #206); (d) is [the amount of manure to which each wagon is entitled] determined by the number of people [traveling in it, wherein wagons with a greater number of travelers receive proportionately more compost] (TOSFOS DH Achsanya)

58)[line 26]זבל שבחצר מתחלקת לפי פתחיםZEVEL SHEB'CHATZER MISCHALEKES L'FI PESACHIM- compost in a courtyard is divided according to the number of doors [since the refuse that eventually turned into compost after having been trampled was originally thrown out of the houses in the courtyard through their doors]

59)[line 29]לסתום כנגד פתחוLI'STOM KENEGED PISCHO- to wall off (a) [the four Amos that belong to him in the Mavoy] opposite his doorway (RASHI); (b) [the end of the Mavoy in which he owns the last house] opposite his doorway [thereby shortening the length of the Mavoy] (TOSFOS DH Echad)

60)[line 30]שמרבה עליהן את הדרךMARBEH ALEIHEN ES HA'DERECH- (a) he lengthens their path [through the Mavoy, since they must skirt his walled-off area] (RASHI); (b) he causes others to enter their [courtyards at those times that the overflow from the main thoroughfare cannot be contained by the now-smaller Mavoy] (TOSFOS DH Echad)

61)[line 30]חמש חצרות פתוחות למבויCHAMESH CHATZEIROS PESUCHOS L'MAVOY- if five courtyards open into an dead-end alleyway [in a line along one side such that the first is closest to the entrance of the alleyway and the last is closest to the dead end]

62a)[line 31]כולן משתמשות עם החיצונהKULAN MISHTAMSHOS IM HA'CHITZONAH- [the residents of] all of [the Chatzeros] may use [the part of the Mavoy in front of the outermost Chatzer] along with [the resident of] the outermost Chatzer

b)[line 32]והחיצונה משתמשת לעצמהVEHA'CHITZONAH MISHTAMESHES L'ATZMAH- and [the resident of] the outermost Chatzer may use [the part of the Mavoy in front of his Chatzer] only

63a)[line 35]פנימית משתמשת לעצמהPENIMIS MISHTAMESHES L'ATZMAH- [the resident of] the innermost Chatzer holds the sole right to use [the part of the Mavoy in front of his Chatzer]. That which the residents of the other Chatzeros may not use the part of the Mavoy in front of the innermost Chatzer implies that a) only those residents of the Mavoy who dwell farther into the Mavoy than he who wishes to wall off his area may protest, and not all of them (RASHI); b) the resident of the innermost Chatzer may indeed wall off the end of the Mavoy (TOSFOS DH Echad).

b)[line 36]ומשתמשת עם כל אחת ואחתU'MISHTAMESHES IM KOL ACHAS V'ACHAS- and he may use [the part of the Mavoy in front of the other Chatzeros] along with [the residents of] every one of [the other Chatzeros]

64)[line 36]תנאי היאTENAI HI- (the Gemara answers) [whether or not the resident of the innermost Chatzer may wall of the end of the Mavoy] is the subject of a Tana'ic disagreement

65)[line 38]היה סתוםHAYAH SASUM- if [he had once had an opening into that Mavoy and] it had [afterward] been stopped up

66)[line 42]מאן דכר שמייהו?MAN DACHAR SHEMAIHU?- who mentioned them (lit. their name) [such that it is logical for Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar to express a dissenting opinion]?

67)[line 42]חסורי מחסרא, והכי קתניCHISUREI MECHSERA, V'HACHI KA'TANI - Amending the Meaning of a Mishnah or Beraisa

(a)In order to answer a question posed from a Mishnah or Beraisa, the Gemara will sometimes explain that we have not understood the Mishnah or Beraisa correctly. The Gemara will say "Chisurei Mechsera v'Hachi ka'Tani" - "Words are missing, and it should be read as follows" - and then add words to the Mishnah or Beraisa which allow it to be read differently, thereby answering the question.

(b)The YAD MALACHI (Klalei ha'Ches, #284) writes that the Gemara will sometimes use "Chisurei Mechsera" to change the original understanding of the Mishnah or Beraisa to one that expresses the opposite ruling. He then quotes the HALICHOS OLAM (2:2) as stating that the Gemara will not go that far, but will rather add to or adjust the original explanation of the Mishnah. The Yad Malachi cites the Gemara in Sanhedrin (12b), however, as proof of his opinion.

(c)How are we to understand that the Tana seemingly forgot to include such integral information? The VILNA GA'ON (end of Divrei Eliyahu, section entitled "Klalim") explains that the use of "Chisurei Mechsera" does not reject the original reading of the Beraisa. The original reading may be read to mean what the Gemara understands in its final explanation, or it may be teaching a different point altogether (RABEINU BACHYA writes similarly in his commentary to Shemos 34:27). The BEIS YOSEF (in "Klalei d'Gemara," Halichos Olam 2:41) explains that these teachings were originally given over in this fashion. Rebbi, who edited much of the Mishnah, recorded them in the Mishnah as they were, expecting those who learned them to fill in the "blanks" on their own. The TIFERES YISRAEL (Boaz to Erchin 4:1) explains that a special tune was utilized when learning Mishnayos and Beraisos to help one commit them to memory (a method used even today in some schools in Eretz Yisrael). The Tana would therefore use wording that fit with the tune even if it rendered the meaning less clear. The Tiferes Yisrael explains that the Tana knew that the true explanation would be apparent to anyone who studied the topic well, as evidenced by that which the Gemara is able to arrive at the proper understanding. (This explanation would appear to be at odds with the explanation of the Vilna Ga'on above.)

(d)The Gemara will sometimes correct the wording of a Mishnah or Beraisa with the word "Teni..." ("teach") or "Eima..." ("say"). Many Rishonim (e.g., RAN to Nedarim 46a) explain that these terms are used to explain the Tana's statement, as opposed to amending it. Similarly, the Gemara will sometimes answer a question by insisting that the Mishnah or Beraisa taught its ruling wherein the person involved verbally expressed a certain qualification. In such situations the Gemara will explain, "b'Omer..." ("in a case where he said..."). Here too, many Rishonim explain that the Gemara means that even if he did not actually express such a qualification, it is as if he did (e.g., TOSFOS to Yevamos 25b DH b'Omer).

68)[line 49]שלא פרץ את פצימיוLO PARATZ ES PETZIMAV- he did not remove its doorposts, lintel, and doorsill

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