THE KELIM THAT QUALIFY FOR KIDUSH
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): If the Kiyor does not contain enough water to be Mekadesh four Kohanim, it is invalid - "v'Rachatzu Mimenu Moshe v'Aharon u'Vanav."
Question (Beraisa): One may be Mekadesh from any Keli Shares, whether or not it contains a Revi'is of water!
Version #1 - Rashi - Answer (Rav Ada bar Acha): The case is, the Keli Shares was carved into the Kiyor (so the water comes from the Kiyor, which contains enough water to be Mekadesh four Kohanim).
Version #2 - Tosfos - Answer (Rav Ada bar Acha): The case is, water was scooped into the Keli Shares from the Kiyor (so the water comes from a Keli (the Kiyor) that contains enough water).
Question: It says "Mimenu" (Rashi - we must be Mekadesh from the Kiyor, but not from other Kelim; Tosfos - we must be Mekadesh from the Kiyor or a Keli like it, i.e. that contains enough water)!
Answer: "Yirchetzu" comes to include other Klei Shares (Tosfos - that do not have the proper amount, as long as the water was taken from a Keli with the proper amount).
Question: If so, we should include also Chulin Kelim!
Answer #1 (Abaye): A Kal va'Chomer excludes them:
The base of the Kiyor was anointed (with anointing oil), yet one may not be Mekadesh from it. A Chulin Keli was not anointed at all, all the more so one may not be Mekadesh from it!
Question: What is the source that one may not be Mekadesh from the base?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah) Suggestion: Perhaps one may be Mekadesh from the base, just like from the Kiyor itself!
Rejection: "Kiyor Nechoshes v'Chano Nechoshes" - the base is equated to the Kiyor only in one way, that both are made of copper.
Objection (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Mari): We cannot learn from the base, which it is not meant to hold anything, to Chulin Kelim, which are made to hold things!
Answer #2: "Mimenu" excludes Chulin Kelim.
Question: If so, we should exclude also other Klei Shares!
Answer: "Yirchetzu" includes other Klei Shares.
Question: Why do we include Klei Shares and exclude Chulin Kelim, and not vice-versa?
Answer: Klei Shares must be anointed, like the Kiyor. Chulin Kelim need not be.
WHICH WATER MAY BE USED FOR THE KIYOR?
(Reish Lakish): Anything that (if added to Mikveh water) can complete the required 40 Sa'im can complete the quantity needed for Kidush (i.e. enough to wash four Kohanim), but (in some cases) it does not complete a Revi'is (Rashi, Tosfos - for Netilas Yadayim; Ra'avad - for a Mikveh to immerse Kelim).
Question: What is an example?
Suggestion: Soft mud (completes a Mikveh).
Question: What is the case?
If a cow will bend and drink it, it completes a Revi'is!
If a cow will not bend and drink it, it does not complete a Mikveh!
Answer #1: Small bugs in water (complete a Mikveh).
Rejection: Even an entire Mikveh may be made of such bugs (if they are ground up)!
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): One may immerse in anything that originates from water.
(R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): One may immerse in the eye of a big fish (after it dissolves).
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Various liquids (including fruit juice) can complete the quantity for a Mikveh if they are added to a complete Mikveh and then the same quantity is removed.
(Mishnah): If a Mikveh had exactly 40 Sa'im, and a Se'ah (of another liquid) was added and a Se'ah was removed, it is Kosher.
(Rav Yehudah bar Shila): This may be repeated until the majority of the Mikveh is other liquids.
Version #1 - Rashi - (Rav Papa): If a Keli holding a Revi'is was carved into the wall of a Mikveh, needles (or other small Kelim) may be immersed in it, because its water came from a proper Mikveh.
Version #2 - Tosfos - (Rav Papa): If a Revi'is of water was scooped into a Keli from a Mikveh, needles may be immersed in it, because its water came from a proper Mikveh.
(R. Yirmeyah): Mikveh water may be used for the Kiyor.
Question: This implies that running water is not needed. A Beraisa requires running water!
(Beraisa): "(The innards of an Olah are rinsed) ba'Mayim", but not in wine or mixed wine. "Ba'Mayim" (in another verse) includes other water, and Kal va'Chomer water of the Kiyor.
Question: What is this Kal va'Chomer?
Suggestion: All the more so one may rinse with running water (Rashi - which may be used for the Kiyor).
Answer: No. Rather, all the more so one may rinse with water of the Kiyor, which is Kodesh.
Objection: That is no reason to be proper for rinsing the innards!
(D'Vei Shmuel - Beraisa): (The innards of an Olah are rinsed with) water that has no accompanying name. This excludes water of the Kiyor.
Conclusion: The suggestion was correct. We include running water, which is required for the Kiyor.
Answer: Tana'im argue about whether running water is required. R. Yirmeyah holds like the Tana that does not require this.
(R. Yochanan): R. Yishmael says that spring water is used for the Kiyor. Chachamim say that other water is used.
AN AREL IS MECHALEL AVODAH
(Mishnah): An Arel is Mechalel Avodah.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rav Chisda): No verse of Chumash teaches this. A verse of Yechezkeil alludes to it - "Kol Ben Nechar Erel Lev v'Erel Basar Lo Yavo El Mikdashi."
Question: This teaches that he may not enter the Mikdash. What is the source that he is Mechalel Avodah?
Answer: It says "Lechalel Es Beisi."
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Ben Nechar" literally refers to a Nochri!
Rejection: If so, it would not need to say "Erel Lev (an uncircumcised heart, i.e. a Rasha)."
Question: Since it must say "Erel Lev", why does it say "Ben Nechar"?
Answer: This teaches that his deeds are Nisnachru (estranged) from Hash-m.
Question: What is the source of a (standard) Arel (i.e. he was not circumcised)?
Answer: It says "v'Erel Basar".
The Torah needed to teach both.
Had it taught only Arel Basar, one might have thought that this is because he is despised (due to his foreskin), but Arel Lev is not Mechalel Avodah;
Had it taught only Arel Lev, one might have thought that this is because he does not act l'Shem Hash-m, but an Arel Basar acts l'Shem Hash-m, and he is not Mechalel Avodah.
TEME'IM ARE MECHALEL AVODAH
(Mishnah): A Tamei (is Mechalel Avodah).
(Ziknei Darom (Chachamim of the south)): This refers only to one who is Tamei Sheretz (became Tamei through a rodent), but one who is Tamei Mes is not Mechalel Avodah. (We do not refer to a Tamei Mes on the seventh day of Taharah, since (if he completes his Taharah) he will be fully Tahor at night, so he is like a Tamei Sheretz.)
Since Tum'as Mes is permitted for Korbanos Tzibur (e.g. if most of Yisrael, the Kohanim or Klei Shares are Tamei Mes, we offer and eat Korban Pesach in Tum'ah) l'Chatchilah, if a Tamei Mes Kohen offered even a Korban Yachid, it is Kosher.
Version #1 (Rashi) Question: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Tum'as Sheretz is permitted for Korbanos Tzibur!
Taharah from Tum'as Mes requires Haza'ah (sprinkling of water with ashes of the Parah Adumah) on days three and seven, yet Tum'as Mes is permitted for Korbanos Tzibur. Taharah from Tum'as Sheretz does not require Haza'ah, all the more so it is permitted!
Version #2 (R. Tam) Question: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that if one who is Tamei Sheretz offered even a Korban Yachid, it is Kosher!
Taharah from Tum'as Mes requires Haza'ah on days three and seven, yet a Tamei Mes does not Mechalel Avodah. Taharah from Tum'as Sheretz does not require Haza'ah, all the more so Avodah of a Tamei Sheretz is Kosher! (end of Version #2)
Answer: Ziknei Darom hold that Kohanim, who effect Kaparah (through Zerikah), have the same law as those who get Kaparah (the owners of the Korbanos). Just like only Tum'as Mes is permitted to the owners, also to Kohanim.
Question: What is Ziknei Darom's opinion about offering the Korban (Pesach) of Teme'im?
If they say that we do not offer the Korban of a Tamei Sheretz, Tum'as Sheretz should be permitted to the Tzibur!
If (most of) the Tzibur has a Tum'ah (which does not emanate from one's body) that forces an individual to wait until Pesach Sheni, they offer Pesach (Rishon).
Answer: They must say that we offer the Korban (Pesach) of one who is Tamei Sheretz (since if he immerses during the day, at night he will be fully Tahor and able to eat it).
Question (Reish Lakish): The Torah permits Tum'ah for the owners more than for the Kohanim!
An owner who is Tamei Sheretz can send his Korban (offer it through a Shali'ach), but a Tamei Sheretz Kohen is Mechalel Avodah;
An owner who is Tamei Mes cannot send his Korban (Pesach, since he will not be Tahor at night to eat it), all the more so a Tamei Mes Kohen is Mechalel Avodah!
Answer: Ziknei Darom hold that a Tamei Mes can send his Korban (even though he will not be able to eat it).
Question: "Ish Ish Ki Yihyeh Tamei... (he brings Pesach on Pesach Sheni)"!
Answer: That is l'Chatchilah, but if he sent his Korban on Pesach (Rishon), he was Yotzei.