[17a - 22 lines; 17b - 25 lines]

1)[line 6]"קדושים יהיו לא-לקיכם, ולא יחללו שם א-לקיכם; כי את אישי ה' לחם א-לקיכם הם מקריבים, והיו קדש""KEDOSHIM YIH'YU L'E-LOKEICHEM, V'LO YECHALELU SHEM E-LOKEICHEM; KI ES ISHEI HASH-M LECHEM E-LOKEICHEM HEM MAKRIVIM, V'HAYU KODESH"- "They shall be holy to their G-d and they shall not desecrate the Name of their G-d; for the fire-offerings of HaSh-m, the food offering to their G-d, they offer, so they must remain holy" (Vayikra 21:6)

2)[line 7]לקורח קרחהL'KORE'ACH KORCHAH - one who makes a bald patch (BAL YIKRECHU)

(a)It is forbidden to remove one's own hair or another Jew's hair, thereby making a bald area ("Korchah") on the head, as a sign of mourning for the death of another person, as the Torah states (Vayikra 21:5, Devarim 14:1). There is no difference whether one removes the hair by hand using an instrument or whether he uses a chemical hair-remover. This prohibition applies exclusively to one who makes a bald patch as a sign of mourning; it does not apply to one who makes a bald patch out of agony after his house collapses or any similar disaster.

(b)One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition receives one set of Malkus for each bald patch that he makes, as long as he was warned each time not to do it by two witnesses. If one makes a bald patch on the head of another Jew and the person whose head is being made bald assists in the process (by moving his head to the correct position), they both receive Malkus. The bald patch must be as large as a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) in order to be liable for Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:15-16).

3)[line 7]ולמשחית פאת זקןUL'MASHCHIS PE'AS ZAKAN - one who removes a corner of his beard (HASHCHASAS ZAKAN)

(a)It is forbidden by a Lav in the Torah for a Jewish male to remove any of the five "corners" of his or another Jewish male's beard with a razor, as the verse states, "...v'Lo Sashchis Es Pe'as Zekanecha" - "... nor shall you mar the corners of your beard" (Vayikra 19:27). One who transgresses this prohibition is liable for Malkus. From the word "Tashchis," Chazal learn that the prohibition only includes shaving with a razor (Makos 21a), since only a razor leads to Hashchasah (destruction) of the hair.

(b)The Rishonim argue as to exactly which sections comprise the "corners" of the beard that are included in this prohibition. The current practice is not to shave any part of the beard with a razor.

(c)The prohibition of Hashchasah applies both to the person shaving and to the one being shaved, if he helps the shaver (by moving his head to the correct position). It is prohibited to shave the beard of a male minor as well. This prohibition does not apply to a woman who is shaved by a man or who shaves the beard of a man. (The prohibition, however, does apply to the man who is being shaved by a woman.) (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:7; see Nazir Chart #13)

4)[line 7]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM- a Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that were Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.

5)[line 9]דפסיל בתרומה מחיל עבודה דלא פסיל בתרומה לא מחיל עבודהD'FASIL B'TERUMAH MACHIL AVODAH, D'LO PASIL B'TERUMAH LO MACHIL AVODAH- one who is ineligible to eat Terumah invalidates the Avodah, and one who is not ineligible to eat Terumah (a Kohen who makes a bald spot on his head) does not invalidate the Avodah

6)[line 13]שכן מטמא בטבול יוםSHE'KEN METAMEI B'TEVUL YOM (TUM'AH: The Different Levels of Tum'ah)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei.

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called 'Av ha'Tum'ah' (a father of Tum'ah), except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah." All levels of Tum'ah below Av ha'Tum'ah are referred to as Vlad ha'Tum'ah (a 'child' of Tum'ah).

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah.

1.Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.

2.Another case in which the object touched can retain the same level of Tum'ah as that which touched it is Cherev Harei Hu k'Chalal (see Insights to Pesachim 14b).

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (If someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. For this reason, it is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is "Pasul" and may not be eaten.

(f)Utensils, foods, and Jewish people, can become Tamei, as follows. (Other animate or inanimate objects cannot become Tamei.)

1.Utensils made from the metals listed in the Torah (Bamidbar 31:22), or from wood, leather, fibers produced from hair or plants, bone, and earthenware (Cheres), can become Tamei. All but earthenware can be either an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah; earthenware can only be a Rishon l'Tum'ah (RASHI Eruvin 104b DH Lo).

2.Foods can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or lower.

3.Jewish people can become Avos ha'Tum'ah (by touching a corpse), an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon. Chazal decreed that a person's hands can become Sheni l'Tum'ah; see Background to Gitin 15:26. Chazal also decreed that a person can become a Sheni l'Tum'ah or Shelishi l'Tum'ah by eating foods that are Tamei (see Shabbos 13b).

(g)A person or utensil that is Tamei can become Tahor again through immersion in a Mikvah and waiting until nightfall. After immersion in a Mikvah but before nightfall, the person or utensil is known as a Tevul Yom. A Tevul Yom is deemed the equivalent of a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and can make Terumah or Kodesh into a Shelishi. It is more lenient, however, than a normal Sheni l'Tum'ah and cannot make liquids into a Rishon (see above, c:1).

7)[line 13]מחוסר כפוריםMECHUSAR KIPURIM - one who must offer a Korban to complete his purification process

(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora:

1.Tevilah (immersing in a Ma'ayan (spring) for a Zav, or a Mikvah for the others),

2.He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah),

3.a Korban.

(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah (lit. one who is lacking atonement) until he brings his Korban.

8)[line 14]לא אתי מיניהLO ASI MINEI- the Tevul Yom cannot be derived from it (the Mechusar Kipurim)

9)[line 16]מחוסר מעשהMECHUSAR MA'ASEH- he lacks a positive act (i.e. the offering of a Korban) to become completely Tahor, while the Tevul Yom lacks merely the passage of time (nightfall) to become completely Tahor

10)[line 22]סוף סוף קלישא להSOF SOF KELISHA LAH- in the end, the Tum'ah of Mechusar Kipurim is weaker than that of a Tevul Yom, since the one who lacks atonement has already experienced nightfall after immersion, while the Tevul Yom has not

17b----------------------------------------17b

11)[line 1]מחוסר כפורים דזב כזב דמיMECHUSAR KIPURIM D'ZAV K'ZAV DAMI- a former Zav who has not yet offered his Korban for atonement has the same status as a Zav. (Just as a Zav cannot bring a Korban Pesach along with the rest of the Tzibur when it is brought by a Tzibur b'Tum'ah (only a Tamei Mes may bring it), even a Zav who has immersed in a Mikvah after his count of seven clean days may not participate in bringing the Korban.)

12)[line 8]מכלל שהוא טמאMICHLAL SHE'HU TAMEI- it implies that [he is undergoing a process of purification even though] he is still Tamei. From here we derive that a Tevul Yom, whom the Torah declares Tahor with regard to Ma'aser, may perform the procedure of Parah Adumah. (TOSFOS DH v'Hazeh)

13)[line 11]טומאה דהך פרשהTUM'AH D'HACH PARSHAH- the verse deals with the Tum'ah of that chapter; i.e. the Tum'ah contracted by coming into contact with a corpse

14)[line 12]דטמא שרץD'TAMEI SHERETZ (TUM'AS SHERETZ)

(a)A Sheretz (a crawling pest - see Vayikra 11:29-38 for a list of the eight Sheratzim, and Background to Chulin 122:7), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.

(b)In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Teme'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.

(c)It is forbidden to eat the abovementioned Sheratzim that generate Tum'ah, as well as all other creeping pests, as the verse states, "v'Chol ha'Sheretz ha'Shoretz Al ha'Aretz, Sheketz Hu, Lo Ye'achel" - "And all creeping things that creep on the ground are an abhorrence, they shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 11:41). If a person eats a k'Adashah of a dead Sheretz (of the eight Sheratzim that generate Tum'ah) or a k'Zayis of a live Sheretz (or of all other types of Sheratzim, dead or alive) b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). (Chulin 122a; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #162)

15)[line 16]ומטו בה משמיה דרבי אלעזרU'MATU BAH MI'SHEMEI D'REBBI ELAZAR B'REBBI SHIMON- and there are those who lean [to citing it] in the name of Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon

16)[line 19]שבגדיהם עליהם כהונתם עליהםSHE'BIGDEIHEM ALEIHEM KEHUNASAM ALEIHEM (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13).

(b)The eight vestments are:

1.Tzitz (forehead-plate),

2.Efod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe),

5.Kutones (long shirt),

6.Michnasayim (breeches),

7.Avnet (belt),

8.Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are:

1.Kutones (long shirt),

2.Michnasayim (breeches),

3.Avnet (belt),

4.Migba'as (hat).

(d)The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33), the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.

(e)Before the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyah ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26) and the Shemen ha'Mishchah were also hidden together with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubeh Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.

17)[line 22]לשתויי ייןLI'SHESUYEI YAYIN - those who have drank wine (ISUR KENISAH LA'MIKDASH L'SHESUY YAYIN)

(a)It is forbidden to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash while one is under the influence of wine or anything intoxicating. The verse states, "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht Atah u'Vanecha Itach b'Vo'achem El Ohel Mo'ed v'Lo Samusu..." - "Do not drink wine or any other intoxicant, you (Aharon) and your descendants, when you come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and do not die [on account of it]..." (Vayikra 10:9). This applies if one drank a Revi'is of undiluted wine or more than a Revi'is of diluted wine.

(b)If a Kohen entered the Beis ha'Mikdash beyond the point where the Mizbe'ach begins during the time of the Avodah and performs Avodah while under the influence of wine, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Avodah that he performs is Pasul (disqualified). If he was under the influence of other intoxicants he has transgressed a Lav and receives Malkus. The Avodah that he does is Kosher. If he enters but does not perform any Avodah, whether under the influence of wine or other intoxicants, according to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Bi'as ha'Mikdash 1:15) he receives Malkus, while according to the RAMBAN (Sefer ha'Mitzvos Lo Sa'asei 73) and other Rishonim this is prohibited only mid'Rabanan.

(c)It is forbidden for anyone (even a non-Kohen) to enter the Ezras Yisrael or beyond while intoxicated, even though he does not transgress a Lav for doing so (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #152).

18)[line 25]רחוץ ידים ורגליםRECHUTZ YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM

(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for the Kohanim to wash their hands and feet whenever they enter the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash or when they do any Avodah (Divine service), "v'Rachatzu Aharon u'Vanav Mimenu..." (Shemos 30:19-21) (Sanhedrin 83b).

(b)A Kohen places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot, and bends over. Another Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor on his hands and feet (or, if he is alone, he places his hands and feet under the faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing. If a Kohen transgresses intentionally, and performs an Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and the Avodah is invalid (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).

(c)A Kohen has to wash his hands and feet only once every day, as long as he makes sure that they did not become Teme'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether a Kohen who did Avodah all night is required to wash his hands and feet again in the morning.

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